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52 Cards in this Set

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Genetic Engineering
Efforts to minipulate DNA sequences in organisms.
Biotechnology
The minipulation of organism to create products or to cure disease.
Prions
An infectious protein that is thought to cause disease by inducing other proteins to assume an abnormal 3D structure
Reverse Transcriptase
Catalyzes the synthesis of a DNA strand from an RNA template
Genetic Cloning
The process of producing many identical copies of a gene.
Complementary DNA (cDNA)
DNA created in the lab from an RNA transcription, using
reverse transcriptase, corresponds to a particular gene but lacks introns.
Plasmids
Small circular DNA molecule, independent of the cell’s chromosome.
Restriction Endonucleases
Bacterial enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at specific base
sequences.
Recognition Site
The specific sequence of DNA bases cut by a certain restriction
endonuclease.
Sticky Ends
The short, single stranded ends of a DNA molecule cut by restriction
endonuclease. Tend to form Hydrogen bonds w/ each other.
Recombinant DNA technology
Ability to create novel DNA sequences by cutting specific
sequences and pasting them into new locations.
Vector
A vehicle for transferring recombinant genes to a new host.
Transformation
Incorporation of DNA obtained directly from the environment into the
genome. Occurs naturally in some bacteria, can be induced in the lab.
cDNA library
A collection of bacterial cells each containing a vector w/ one cDNA from a
particular cell type of tissue.
Probe
Single-stranded fragment of a labeled, known gene that binds to a complementary
sequence in the sample being analyzed.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
An in vitro DNA synthesis over and over to amplify the
number of copies of that sequence.
Taq Polymerase
Heat-Stable form of a DNA polymerase.
Dideoxy Polymerase
A lab technique for determining the exact nucleotide sequence of DNA.
Relies on the use of dideoxynucleotides triphosphates, which terminate DNA
replication.
Gene Therapy
The treatment of an inherited disease by introducing normal alleles.
Stem Cells
Undifferentiated cells that have the potential to give rise to any tissue cell.
Gall
Tumor-like growth that forms on plants that are infected w/ certain bacteria or parasites.
Virus
Obligate, intracellular parasite.
Particle or Agents
Non-living infectious entity, such as a virus.
Bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria
Epidemic
A disease that affects a large number of people at the same time
Virulant
Tended to cause severe disease
AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Immune System
Body’s defense system against disease
Capsid
A shell of protein enclosing the genome of virus particles
Envelope
A membrane-like covering that encloses some viruses and their capsid coats,
shielding them from attack by the host’s immune system
Enveloped
In a virus, having an envelope surrounding its capsid coat
Vaccine
Preparation that primes a host’s immune system to respond to a specific type of virus
Lytic Replication Virus
A type of viral replication in which new virus particles are made
inside a host cell and eventually burst out of the cell, killing it.
Virion
A singled mature virus particle.
Antibody
A protein that binds w/ high specificity to a particular site on another molecule.
Antigens
Any foreign molecule that can stimulate a specific response by the immune system.
Inactivated Viruses
Not capable of causing an infection
Attenuated Virus
A virus that is functional but has been rendered nonvirulent for a certain
species. Used for vaccines.
Lysogenic Replacation Virus
A type of viral replication in which viral DNA is inserted into
the host’s chromosomes, remaining there indefinitely and passively replicating whenever the host cell divides.
CD4
Particular membrane protein, found on surfaces of thyphocytes
Co-Receptors
Any membrane protein that acts w/ some other membrane protein in a cell
interaction or cell response.
RNA replicase
A viral enzyme that can synthesis RNA from an RNA template
RetroVirus
Viruses that reverse-transcribe their genome
Protease
An enzyme that can break apart proteins, be cleaving the peptide bonds between
amino acids
Combination Therapy
Medical therapy that involves dosing an infected patient w/ several
drugs simultaneously, to lessen the chances of the pathogen evolving resistance
Positive-Sense Virus
the genome contains the same sequence as the mRNA required to
produce viral proteins.
Negative-Sense Virus
The base sequence in the genome are complementary to those in viral mRNAs.
Ambisence Virus
Some sections of the genome is positive sense while the other sections are
negative sense.
Emerging Disease
New illness that suddenly affects significant numbers of individuals in a
host population
Emerging Virus
Any of several pathogenic viruses that suddenly afflict significant numbers of
individuals, often due to changes in host species or host population movements.
Pneumonia
Inflammation of the lungs
Syndrom
A group of symptoms that occur together and have the same cause