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45 Cards in this Set

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ATP
bonds high energy, unstable
3 phosphate groups
Phosphorylation
ex
add a phosphate group.
adp to atp
substrate level phosphorylation

occurs in
addition of a phosphate group, w/o the use of a intermediary (electron carrier)
Krebs and Glycolasis cycle
Oxidative phosphorylation
adding of a phosphate group to a molecule REQUIRES an intermediary (electron carrier).
REQUIRES oxygen
Electron Carriers
Molecules that have the unique capacity to undergo repeated oxidation and reduction reactions w/o themselves being changed in the process.
Ex of electron carriers
NAD, FAD, Cytochrome
Glycolysis occurs in
DOES NOT REQUIRE
How many ATP to get process started?
APTnet?
cytoplasm
Oxygen
2
2
Pyruvate Oxidation


per pyruvate =
1. Pyruvate molcules convert to acetyl COA
2. Each pyruvate molecule releases one CO2 molecule
3. one substrate molecule
per glucose
double
krebs cycle occurs
What happens?
substrate level:
inner matrix of mitochondria.
Acetyl COA is completley broken down, will relase 2 carbons
3 NADH, 1ATP, 1 FADH molecule
Electron Transport System

reactions in:
All 12 electron carriers generate lots of ATP
inner membrane
Cytochrome
ability to accept an electron
Last electron acceptor in respiration is always
oxygen
atp synthesis

NADH enters at a higher energy level then

NADH capacity to generate


1 FADH
add phosphate group to adp to form atp.
FADH

3 ATP

2 NADH
Electron transport system, rate limiting enzyme:

max yeild
ATP synthesis

38 ATP
GLYCOLYSIS where?

substrate:

end product:
cytoplasm

1 molecule glucose (6C)

2 Molecules pyruvate (3C)
2 NET ATP
2 NADH
PYRUVATE OXIDATION where?

substrate?

end product?
mitochondrial matrix

2 molecule pyruvate (3C each)

2 Molecule acetyl CoA (2 C each)
2 CO2
2 NADH
KREBS CYCLE where?

type of phosphorolyation?

type of metabolism?

substrate?

end product?
mitochondrial matrix

substrate level phosphor

catabolic

2 molecule acetyl CoA (2C each)

4CO2
2ATP
6 NADH
2 FADH2
ETC where?

type of phosphorolyation?

substrate?

end product?
inner mitochondrial membrane

oxidative

10 NADH and 2 FADH2

32-34 ATP
rate limiting enzyme of ETS?
ATP synthesis
Catabolism
Reaction that releases energy
Anabolism
Reaction that consumes energy
FADH2
Electron carrier which will ideally from 2 ATPs/molecule in the electron transport chain
Reduction
Gain of energy through the gain of an electron
Cytoplasm
Site of glycolysis
Inner compartment of mitochondria
Site of Krebs and pyruvate oxidation
Inner membrane of mitochondria
Site of electron transport chain
Oxidation
Loss of energy through loss of electron
NADH
Electron carrier which will ideally form 2 ATPs/molecule in the electron transport chain
Cytochromes
electron carriers in the electron transport chain composed of proteins with an FE group
Number of ATP molecules formed per glucose molecule in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
0
Number of NADH molecules formed per krebs cycle
3
Number of ATP generated from the NADH molecules donated from the krebs cycle per glucose molecule
18
Number of ATP generated from the NADH molecules donated from the pyruvate oxidation step per glucose molecule
6
Photosynthesis
process by which organisms convert light energy into chemical bond energy
Photosynthesis formula
6C02+ 6H20 light C6H12O6 + 6O2
primary photosynthetic
leaf
guard cell

oxygen relased out of
controls when stomata opens to take gas in

stomata
Greens Discs

Stacked discs

Stromma
Thylakoid

Granum

Liquid surrounds thylakoids
Where light reaction occurs

Dark reaction occurs in
Thylakoids

Stroma
Electron carriers used by plants

needed to drive
ATP , NADPH

Calvins Cycle
Chlorophyll A
primary photosynthetic pigments, located in thylakoid
Chlorophyll B
accessory photosynthetic pigment
Crotenes and Xanthophylis
responsible for yellow green colors. absorbed light
Chlorophyll b and A
less reactive.