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87 Cards in this Set

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What types of evidence can help researchers decide whether a trait is ancesteral or more recent?
Outgroup comparison, closely parameterized observations to focused species, based often on morphology, which may help narrow down the region on the timeline to which it belongs. Fossil dating, which may even be used in collaboration w/ outgroup comparison. Mere comparison of traits and possibilities of derivation, which may be more specialized(some may serve as exceptions, however, like the human tailbone).
Is it correct to claim that traits always become more complex or specialized over time? Why or why not?
This seems to be the trend, however, there are many exceptions, for ex whales and snakes have vestigial limbs-they became "more simple." It is important to keep in mind the general use of the terms "complex" though b/c those terms do not necessarily imply better fitness to the environment.
List the traits for ea of the following species with regards to: socialism, walking-methods, dwelling places, sexual maturity; Neanderthals, Orangutans, Pygmy chimps, humans, Gorillas, Common chimps.
1)Social, bipedal, ground dweller, delayed sex mat.
2)Solitary, fist-walker, tree dweller, early sex mat.
3)Social, knuckle-walker, tree and ground dweller, delayed sex mat.
4)Social, bipedal, ground dweller, delayed sex mat.
5)Social, knuckle-walker, ground dweller, early sex mat.
6)Social, knuckle-walker, tree and ground dweller, delayed sex mat.
What is the characteristic that defines the monophyletic group Hominins?
What species/phylas does the group of Apes encompass?
After the Old world Monkeys on the tree, includes Gibbons, orangs, gorillas, humans, bonobos, to the common chimp.
What species/phyla does the group of GreatApes/Hominids encompass?
Orangs, gorillas, humans, bonobos, to the common chimp.
From where do the Gibbons and the Orangs originate?
SE Asia
What type of feeders are the Gorillas?
strict vegitarians
What are the Humans,Bonobos and Common chimps dubbed?
Gorillas and chimps are native to?
What is the social structure of the orangutans according to current observation?
solitary if resources are scarce, highly social if in good habitats.
What is the social structure of Gorillas and chimps?
Highly social, consisting of related females and unrelated males.
What did the structures of walking, socialism, feeding, and tools look like at the node for hominins?
2)social groups
3)probably omnivorous
4)sophisticated tool use-wood/twig tools.
The gracile australopithecines consist of?
What morphological data supports that they walked upright?
1)Australopithecus afarensis: square jaw(ape-like), africa, 3.9-3Ma
2)Australopithecus africanus: round jaw (; large teeth, jaws,, 2.8-2.4Ma

3)hole in back of skull points downward.
1)Laetoli footprints, in Tanzania-trackway in Ash. no handprints.
4)F:~1.1m; M:1.4-1.5m
What is/was the basic trend concerning bigger braincases?
=bigger brains=more smarts.
What species are included in the Robust autstralopithecines?
1)Paranthropus aethiopicus:sagittal crest, kenya, F:~1.1m; M:~1.4-1.5m, 2.7-1.9Ma
2)Paranthropus boisei:Molars 4x H. sapiens(nutcracker-man), kenya, F:~1.3m; M:~1.6m, 2.3-1.4Ma
*sagittal crest-attachment for muscles to jaw(massive).
3)Paranthropus robustus: large sygomatic arch,, F:~1.1m; M:~1.5m, 2-1Ma
Which two species are possibly variants of the same species and concern the question as to whether or not they are actually australopithecus, not Homo?
1)Homo rudofensis: braincase(750cm^3), F:?m; M:?m, stone tools;animal bones w/marks indicating butchery (not necessarily hunting), kenya, 2.4-1.8Ma
2)Homo halbilis: Braincase(650cm^3), F:~1.2m; M:~1.3M, stone tools;animal bones w/ marks indicating butchery, kenya, 1.9-1.6Ma
What are the four undisputed humans species (genus Homo)?
1)Homo erectus(africa & asia): braincase(900cm^3)early;1100 late, F:?m; M:~1.7m, extensive tools; fire?, africa, caucasus, china, java at 1.7 Ma?, 1.7-.3Ma, face flatter, braincase bigger.
2)Homo heidelbergensis: braincase(1200cm^3), a regional variant of H. neanderthalensis?, fire?, africa, .6-.2Ma
3)Homo neanderthalensis: first found in germany, braincase(1450cm^3), F:?; M:1.68m, prepared graves, europe, caucasus, .3-.03Ma
4)Homo sapiens: braincase(Cro-Magnon 1350cm^3; now 1200cm^3), F:?; M:?, grave w/2 other adult men, adult woman, infant, animal bones, jewelry, stone tools, europe, asia, africa, .1Ma-present.
What could the downside of extrordinarly large brains be (like in the neanderthals)?
childbirth mortality
What is some evidence against the idea that neanderthals interbred with homo sapiens?
DNA doesnt trace back to it.
What three species are considered as a separate monophyletic group?
p.robustus, paranthropus boisei, paranthropus aethiopicus
What are some physical trends that occurred during the evolution of the hominins?
1)body size (height) went up
2)Posture-more erect/bipedalism
3)braincase volume-recent reduction but in past, brain size increased dramatically more with body size increase in comparison to the arthros.
4)facial features-flatter faces
5)tool use-sophisticated use
6)other aspects of culture-burial, passing on learned concepts.
How do you calculate 'normalizing weight?'
[(end wt-start wt)/(start wt)]*100
How do you calculate 'efficiency?'
[(end wt cat-start wt cat)/(start wt food-end wt food)]
What is the defining trait unique to homo sapiens?
Pendant breasts in adult females
What are some pieces of evidence standing against language use as the defining trait unique to homo sapiens?
1)sign language in chimps
2)poss speech in neanderthals
Why does biodiversity matter?
observation; lots of species are going extinct.
With regards to human benefits in biodiversity, name 4.
1)Production of goods and services:a. for forest products b. food: wild foods, fisheries
2)Ecosystem services ('life support'): a. flood control
b. soil erosion c. chemical cycling (esp C,N,P) d. water; cleanliness, availability.
3)"Life fulfilling conditions": beauty, wilderness, serenity (buy and sell)
4)Genetic repositories(alleles-for resistence): *interest in sponges b/c they carry so many toxins, fungi. a. drugs=>taxol=>pacific yew trees (in old growth forests)
b. crops=> wild relatives.
What was the big question in studies on north american praire plants?
Does plant species richness (# of species present) affect productivity?
Define "ecosystem'
all of the organisms in an area, along w/ non-living (abiotic) components.
Define "species diversity"
# of species and their relative abundance.
Define "functional group"
plants wi/ distinctive function, timing of growth, or growth habitat(what it invests in).
In the experiment that U of Minnesota did with 32 prairie species in 5 functional groups, the results showed that as species richness went from low to high, the biomass(g/m^2) increased in a slope, then plateaued. The same happened with the x-value set as # of functional groups. why does this happen? what did they conclude?
1)limited resources
2)productivity is important b/c the more biomass, the more there is to eat-resources.
Experiment two on prairie plants worked on the question: does plant species richness affect response to increased CO2 (relevant cuz it's rising) and N? It used 16 species in 4 functional groups, random draw, supplement of one or both, and allowance for growth for measurement of aboveground biomass. Which arrangement of CO2 and N brought the highest change in biomass? What is the control treatment?
1)combined elevated CO2 and N addition effect
2)Plots where nothing was changed (ambient environment).
What is niche complementarity?
range of resources used by a species, different species use resources differently=>more species->more resource use->more productivity. (ex; fungi)
****What is sampling effect? what is its downside?
1)Get most productive species BY CHANCE=>w/ increasing species richness (nuthin to do with resource or niche).
2)less reproduction, less energy on defense mechanisms.
What is species interactions/facilitation?
As you get more species=>you get mutualistic interactions (prob more of a long-term effect).
What is a population?
A group of individuals from the same species that live in the same area at the same time. They interbreed on a reg basis, are exposed to a similar enviroment, are interacting via competition, mutualism, etc.
How do biologists describe changes in pop size?
use math!! whoohoo!
If N0=initial pop size, and N1=pop size one breeding interval later, then what does N1/N0=? what is Nt=N0(lambda^t)?
1)lambda="finite rate of increase" (growth rate)-observed over a discrete time interval, appropriate for seasonal breeders.
2) for t years
How can we express population growth on a per capita (per individual) basis? what does e^r=?
1)have per capita growth rate=r. r=per capita birth rate-per capita death rate. r is the instantaneous rate of increase.
In exponential growth is r constant or no? is r high or low when pop size is? what sort of density growth is expressed(x=generations)?
3)density-independent growth
In density-dependent growth, r depends on what? What are the components of such a graph and what can be done to make it such?
1)population size.
2)The first part of the slope looks like the r is constant but then it changes and is limited off to a carrying capacity. In order to make it density-dependent, the pop growth may be limited (food, space, disease transmission, predation, energy for humans, etc).
What is carrying capacity?
max number of individuals that can be supported by available resources.
Are whooping cranes showing exponential or density-dependent growth?
What density-dependent factors contrain growth?
food (take it away, supplement), disease (treatment), space (set up plots with diff combinations)
What can lower the carrying capacity?
an overshoot of taking in resources
What is the "replacement rate?"
when fertility (avg #kids/female/lifetime)=~2.1
What are the changes in growth rate all about?
fertility rates
If get 2.1 fertility from now until 2050, then by 2050 growth rate will be .47% per year. WHY?
most individuals alive now are young->when they have babies, get more total babies even though fewer females->population momentum.
population structure is based on what?
a pop pyramid
Considering relative abundance of diff aged individuals and importance for growth/future-of high survivorship, no growth (fertility constant), what will the pop pyramid look like?
up until older ages, surviorships constant in spread, and then toward top, will decrease.
Considering relative abundance of diff aged individuals and importance for growth/future-of high survivorship, population declining (fertility dropping), what will the pop pyramid look like? what pops serve as an example?
an upside down pyramid; japan, russia for a while.
Considering relative abundance of diff aged individuals and importance for growth/future-of high survivorship, population increasing (fertility increasing), what will the pop pyramid look like? what pops serve as an example?
a right-side up pyramid; indonesia
Considering geographic structure in populations (e.g. glanville fritillary), what is a metapopulation?
a population of populations
When the experiments with the glanville fritillary were done, a census 2 years later was done and it was found that some populations that were occuppied habitats b4 were gone, other habitats colonized. What are the take-home messages?
1)immigration/emigration=>colonization and extinction
2)dynamic=>changing location over time.
What plus/minus relationship does the competition theory have?
What is a species' nich?
the sum of all resources it uses and all habitats it occupies.
What is a fundamental niche?
range of possible resources and habitats used.
What is a reazlized niche?
actual range of resources and habitats used-usually diff from fundamental b/c another species is using it too.
If there is a species A and B that overlap in part (say the resource is flower color), then what will happen over time?
resources used will change, natural selection will favor individuals that use non-overlapping resources...therefore niches should change over time (NICHE DIFFERENTIATION). species are partitioning the resource.
What is niche breadth determined by?
evolution, genetic variation or adaptibility.
What is symmetric competition?
interacting species affect ea other equally in competition.
What is asymmetric competition?
one species is a stronger competitor than the other.
In competitive exclusion, what happens? why dont we see it in nature everywhere?
1)it's like the Gause experiment, one species will completely overlap the other, and driving the 'overlapped' to extinction.
2)lab set-up is diff than in nature.
what are the fitness trade-offs w/ high competitive ability?
less reproduction, less mutualistic interactions, less defense. Really strong competitors have a narrow range (low-niche breadth) -specialized. local ex: invasive species => blackberry, ivy,scotchbroom. their common predators, parasites, viruses are absent, although they do defend themselves (via thorns etc).
What are the crticisms of observational studies?
the pattern could be due to alternative reasonable structure (like different resources on diff islands for the galapagos finches or colonization (history), ex: the ones that colonized were just "that way.")---NOT COMPETITION.
What is a good type of study for eliminating possibility of history argument? name an example.
1)experimental study
2)Connell's study of barnacles (crustaceans) growing in intertidal habitats.
What type of experiments have been used to test whether or not predators reduce prey populations below the level that can be supported by available resources?
Predator removal experiments
What conclusion was drawn from predator removal experiments?
in at least some populations, "top down" control of prey populations occurs. the prey then overshoot carrying capacity and then decline from there.
What is a trophic relationship?
whos eating whom
How do prey respond to predators? name two types of ways.
they exert natural selection with two types of defenses:

1)Standing defenses=always present [thorns in Hamalayan blackberry, porcupine quills, urchin spines, skunks]

2)Inducible defenses=produced in response to predation [blue crabs and mussels]
How must experiments to test a hypothesis be designed in terms of manipulation?
the manipulation must be repeated/done on control group too. ex: quills, no quills (clipped), quills clipped then glued back on. also, exposure to fishers, same conditions.
what is a keystone species?
one that has an extraordinarily large impact on the surrounding community, relative to its abundance. ex: pisaster predator has huge impact on mussel population, even though its biomass isn't that large.
In Herbivory, why is the world green? (3 hypothesis)
1)the top-down hypothesis
2)the poor nutrition hypothesis: N limitation. growth and reproduction of herbivores is limited by access to N-> Herbivores are N starved b/c plants contain <10% N by weight compared to animals.
3)the plant defense hypothesis: presence of toxins or indigestible compounds prevents tissues from being eaten (cellulose, lignin). Ex: nicotine as an induced defense, synthesized in roots in response to attack by herbivores; transported to trichomes (leaf "hairs").
In a study, Hb alleles in healthy and Plasmodium-infected people from Burkina Faso (note: relatively high freq of HbC genotypes. What were the two key observations and conclusion?
1)In healty people, HbC genotypes are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There is no selection etc v'yaish random mating (w/ respect to that gene).
2)Among Plasmodium-infected people, there are observed no HbCC homozygotes.

Conclusion: HbC heterozygotes reduce risk of infection by 29%. Homozygous reduce risk by 93%.
What has "community" been defined as and what are the 4 key ideas that these interact via?
1)the collection of species in a particular area
2)Predation/herbivory, competition, parasitism, mutualism.
What has "coevolution" been defined as?
any interaction b/w species that leads to natural selection and mutual adaptation
What were Clement's ideas of communities?
That they are highly structured (coevolved and interdependent) and have a mature ("climax") stage that is unchanging. It is predictable b/c it's determined by climate. Communities develop over time like an individual organism. If disturbed, the climax community will reconstitute itself by going through, teiterating stages of development.
What were Gleason's ideas of communities?
That they are loose assemblages of species. They are not predictable, the species present in an area are there b/c of chance.
Communities are not stable. They are dynamic, change through time. Disturbance is followed by different community development.
What are the 3 analyzations required to understand effects of disturbance?
type of disturbance, freq of occurance, and severity (including the geographic extent).
What is meant by succession?
It refers to the sequence of species that occupy a site through time, after a disturbance. (a very Gleason idea)
What 3 focuses are required in order to understand the occurence of succession?
species traits, species interactions, history
Nitrogen atoms cycle through ecosystems, primarily via
bacteria and archaea
Humans add a lot of what type of nitrogen to the environment?
reduced nitrogen
Nitrogen atoms cycle through ecosystems, primarily via
bacteria and archaea
Humans add a lot of what type of nitrogen to the environment?
reduced nitrogen