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94 Cards in this Set

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When comparing 2 atoms:
Atom #1 has 13 protons and a mass of 26.
Atom #2 has 13 protons and a mass of 27.
From this you conclude:
The atoms are isotopes of the same element.
Chemical Reactivity is best predicted by what?
The filling of outer energy shells.
Carbon (4 electrons in outer shell) Nitrogen (3 electrons in outer shell) (CN) compounds are common in biochemistry and bonded through what?
Polar Covalent bonds with nitrogen having a partial negative charge.
When adding another acid (EX. HCL) to weak acid solution, you expect the weak acid to...
Accept more protons, keeping the pH relatively unchanged.
The properties of water include:
Cohesion and high specific heat, and are due to hydrogen bonding of water molecules.
The 4 major classes of Macromolecules are:
Assembled because equilibrium favors synthesis.
Glucose is used to make what molecules?
Sucrose
Maltose
Lactose
Examination of a short polypeptide reveals that all of the monomers contain a carbon ring or methyl (-CH3) R groups.
Therefore, the polypeptide is:
Hydrophobic
The sequence of amino acids in a protein includes all possible amino acids but the protein is made of a single polypeptide.
With this information, how would you characterize this protein?
High primary structural diversity and lacking quanternary structural diversity.
A neuleic acid polymer that is not in the nucleus is most likely:
RNA
What is a characteristic that all lipids share, at least in part?
Nonpolarity
You are presented with an unknown vegetable oil at room temperature and asked to characterize it in a lab.
Without experimentation, you already know that:
It is unsaturated and contains some carbon-carbon double bonds.
What best describes the dominant property of a pure phospholipid membrane?
Hydrophobic
What information can you gain by comparing the surface area of a monolayer of phospholipids with the surface area of the cells from which those phosopholipids came?
How many layers of the phospholipids the membrane has.
Which of the following molecules would most easily be able to pass through a pure phospholipid membrane?
O2 (Gaseous Oxygen)
A medical doctor reports having patients with "leaky" blood vessels, where fluid is able to escape by passing between cells of the blood vessels.
In consultation with BIO110 students, the good doctor learns that this is probably due to a problem with what?
Tight Junctions
After a cold night, a single-celled paramecium living in a cattle pond moves to a warm, sunny spot to feed in.
In response to this movement, the paramecium will most efficently adjust its cell membranes by:
Including longer and more saturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids.
The kinetics of transport diffusion indicate that even though you keep increasing the concentration of an ion, the rate of movement is constant, and does not increase.
You conclude that the ion is moving into the cell by:
A Carrier Protein
A membrane protein transports calcium ions into a cell only when there is a high concentration of those ions outside of the cell. That same protein causes sodium ions to accumulate to a high concentration outside of the cell, being transported from the inside.
These ions are being moved by:
Coupled Transport using an Antiporter
Active Transport of molecules across a cell membrane requires:
ATP or Coupled transport for energy
Placing a cell in a hypotonic solution will cause water to:
Move into the cell by osmosis
When large amounts of cholesterol are needed by a cell, the likely mechanism of transport will be:
Endocytosis
A certain cell's function is to synthesize and secrete a protein.
In direct connection with its function, that cell will likely have:
An Extensive Rough ER
What is a universal organelle?
Ribosomes
Which of the following organelles are involved in the manufacturing and trafficking of a protein destined to be exported from the cell?
Rough ER, Transport Vesicle, Golgi, Secretory Vesicle
Mitochondria, Chlorplasts, and the nucleus all have what in common?
A double bilayer membrane
A protein that needs modification prior to proper functioning will undergo those modifications in the:
Rough ER and Golgi
Despite the fact that eukaryotic cells share many features, what is only found in plant cells, not animal cells:
Chloroplasts
Plastids
Cell Wall
A cell that is lacking the ability to synthesize cholestrol and membrane lipids probably has a problem with its:
Smooth ER
Intermediate filaments are characterized as:
Branched, stable fibers that provide structure to the cell
Cells in a localized area are able to rapidly respond to growth factor signaling molecules becuase of:
The extra cellular matrix
In an energetically closed system at a constant temperature, the reversible reaction, xy<-->zw occurs.
If the G (free energy) = 12 in xy and G=6 in zw, then:
xy-->zw will occur spontaneously
If the results of an experiment indicate that before adding an enzyme, the ΔG of a reaction is 4.6, but after adding an enzyme the ΔG = -2.1, then:
The data are falsified; no such change can take place with an enzyme
The molecule and reaction most often coupled to endergonic reaction is:
ATP-->ADP+Pi
Arranging electron carriers according to increasing affinity for electrons:
Creates an electron transport chain
During photosynthesis. O2 is produced from the:
Oxidation of H2O
In photosynthesis, ATP is directly produced via
Chemiosmosis
If a plant cell lacks the energy to synthesize ATP during photosynthesis, what is most likely the direct cause of this problem?
The B6f Complex
During the light reactions, electrons flow from
Water to NADPH
Where do the reactions of the Calvin Cycle take place?
Stroma
Where do the reactions of the Calvin Cycle take place?
Thylakoid membrane
If the Calvin Cycle stops becuase there are no electrons to drive the reduction of carbons, what is most likely the cause?
Photosystem I is not functioning properly
If the Calvin Cycle proceeds normally until failure of the carbon reduction reactions, but there are electrons to drive that reaction, what is most likely the cause?
Insuffecient sources of inorganic carbon
How many times have the reactions of the Calvin Cycle been completed if we have been produced twelve G3P molecules?
Six
What is the main functionof chlorphyll molecules in photosynthesis?
Absorb and transfer light energy
What is the source of energy for the active transport of protons in the light reactions?
The flow of electrons along an electron transport chain
What is the main organelle involved in photosynthesis?
Chloroplasts
What is the direct product of the Calvin Cycle?
G3P
What is the general relationship between the energy and metabolic reactions?
Anabolic reactions build & are endergoinc; Catabolic reactions break down & are exergonic
what 3 processes are included in cellular respiration?
Oxidation of pyruvate
Krebs Cycle
Chemiosmosis
What is the main difference between substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation?
Substrate Level uses organic phosphate
Oxidative Level uses inorganic phosphate
What is the mechanism and process responsible for ATP produced in the cytoplasm?
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation/Oxidation of Pyruvate
What is the end product of glycolysis?
Pyruvate
What is the net eneergy yield of glycolsis?
2 ATP and 2 NADH
What is the difference between the fermentation of ethanol and fermentation of lactate (lactic acid)?
The removal of CO2
Fermentation and cellular respiration accomplish what important task that enables continual glycolysis?
Oxidation of NADH
What process does not unclude a redox reaction?
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
What step in the oxidation of glucose is directly responsible for the majority of ATP production?
Chemiosmosis
The process of providing energy through the facilitated diffusion of protons to drive the endergonic synthesis of ATP is named:
Chemiosmosis
If the mitochondrial emebrane were not intact, what process would be most adversely affected?
Chemiosmosis
Which molecule donates electrons to the second member of the electron transport chain of the mitochondria?
FADH2
Electron transport chain members in the mitochondria pumps protons into the:
Intermembrane Space
If an animal cell lacks oxygen, what is the first process likely to be adversely affected?
The Electron Transport Chain
During which two stages of the oxidation of glucose is CO2 produced?
Krebs Cycle
Oxidation of a Pyruvate
Where does an organism that is at the first trophic level get its energy?
The Sun
Hetertrophs are dependent on autotrophs for what two important products?
Energy and Organic Matter
Detritovores, such as decomposing bacteria, obtain matter and energy from which trophic levels?
All trophic levels
What is the main source and the chemical forms of bioavailable nitrogen?
Nitrogen Recycling; NH3 & NO3
Why is the sun so important to all living organisms?
Without it, we have no energy input in biology and entropy would dominate, creating disorder
What is an easy way to disrupt the water cycle in terrestrial ecosystems and why?
Remove Trees - They provide transpiration, which brings about precipitation
What may be the likely result to damage to any one part of an ecosystem?
the ability to preform life-sustaining services will be decreased becuase the interconnectedness of the ecosystem will be diminished
The only population of a species is decimated by disease, leaving a small number of individuals.
What can we safely assume is a major force affecting allele frequences in this population?
Genetic Drift
In a diploid population of 100 individuals, 20 copies of allele A are present. what is the frequency of allele A?
10%
What limits the number of trophic livels in an ecosystem?
The large amount of energy lost at each trophic level
An individual believes that a forest of fir trees has a certain dollar value because that is how much the lumber for those trees is worth.
Is this an accurate calue of the forest?
No, the true value of the ecosystem must account for all services and products provided by that ecosystem, not just those that can be sold at market
What is one reason why genotype and phenotype might not perfectly correspond?
Allelic Dominance
Which of the following factors does not contribute to carrying capacity?
Allelic Dominance
What is the process whereby a bacterium acquires anitbiotic resistance by obtaining DNA from another bacterium that is already resistant?
Conjugation
How many genotypes are possible in diploid organism for a gene with 2 alleles?
3
Which evolutionary phenomenon is most closely tied to fitness?
Reproduction
Which of the following ideas associated with evolution has not been observed in nature?
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
Which 2 branches of science are unified in the modern synthesis?
Genetics
Evolution
Exponential growth rates are influenced by?
rN
If in a natural population where the animals have a variety of coat colors, those with the darkest coat color and the lighest coat color are the most reproductively successful, what type of selection is occuring?
Disruptive Selection
Two organisms occur in the same area but occupy different habitats and so rarely encounter one another.
This is an example of what type of reproductive isolating mechanism?
Ecological Isolation
The colonization of a remote area by a few individuals and the subsequent speciation between the colonists and the source population is an example of what type of speciation?
Allopatric
A gene with only a single allele cannot evolve by natural selection becuase:
No variation exists
How can someone who knows nothing about evolution regect the idea of it?
Because probablities can't be applied to events that have already occured
Two individuals considered difference species according to the biological species concept when what condidtions are met?
They have established reprodutive isolation
Attacking evolution becuase it imposes on religious beliefs is unfounded becuase:
Religious beliefs of supernatural phenomena are immune from attacks by science becuase science is restricted to the natural world
Scientific theories remain theories becuase they can never be proven true in all cases.
This is becuase science often proceeds by what type of reasoning?
Induction
Plants commonly achieve speciation through what type of reproductive isolation that is rare in animals?
Polyploidy
What is the science of recovering the ancestor-descendant relationships among species?
Systemantics
Sharp declines in biodiversity are due to what?
Extinction