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12 Cards in this Set

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cell respiration
- The process by which aerobic cells produce energy (atp)
- Includes both Anaerobic and aerobic phases
- overall forumula -
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ----> 6CO2 + 6H2O
-overall is an oxidative process (LOSS OF ELECTRONS)
atp
(ADENOSINE TRIphosphate)
-consists of adenosine(the adenine nucleotide and ribose) plus 3 phosphates
-Used by cells as source of immediate energy
Fermentation (anaerobic Respiration)
-produces small amount of energy in absence of oxygen
-begins with glycolysis and produces 2 molecules of pyruvate then alcohol or lactic acid
-converts nadh to nad by transferring electrons to pyruvate
Aerobic Respiration
Occurs in mitochondria
-requires the presence of oxygen
-consists of Ktrebs cycle and electron transport chain
-Occurs after the anaerobic respiration phase
-produces 36 atp
ATP Synthetase
(atp synthase)
-A protein complex that sits within the cristae membrane of a mitochondrion
-responsible for producing atp as protons(h+) flow down a gradient through the channel from the outer compartment to the inner matrix
electron transport chain
etc
-Energy coupling reaction that creats H+ gradient in the cristae membrane necessary for chemiosmosis
-Electrons flow down the chain from one carrier molecule to the next in a series of redox reactions
-Energy released from the exergonic flow of electrons is used to pump protons across the cristae membrane to create a proton gradient
-The final hydrogen (H+) acceptor in the chain is oxygen h2+1/2O2 yields h2O
-Water is a waste product and is exhaled
chemiosmosis
-a process by which atp is formed in mitochondria as protons flow down a proton gradient through the atp synthetase comples in the cristae membrane
-known as the mitchell hypothesis
substrate-levelPhophorylation
Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein molecule or a small moleculeis
-Process that produces a small amount of atp during glycosisand the krebs cycle
-During this process, the enzyme kinase transfers a phosphate from substrate directly to atp
Oxidative phosphorylation
-The way MOST ATP is produced during aerobic respiration- chemiosmosis
- Produces atp by using energy derived from the redox reactions of etc(electron transport chain)
NAD+ - NADH
NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
Carries electrons to the ETC FROM GLYCOSIS AND KREBS CYCLE
FAD-FADH2
FLAVIN ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
FADHX CARRIES ELECTRONS TO ETC FROM KREBS CYCLE, ENTERING AT LOWER ENERGY LEVELS THAN NADH DOES
FAD-FADH2
FLAVIN ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
FADHX CARRIES ELECTRONS TO ETC FROM KREBS CYCLE, ENTERING AT LOWER ENERGY LEVELS THAN NADH DOES