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101 Cards in this Set

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tissues
An aggregation of morphologically similar cells and associated intercellular matter acting together to perform one or more specific functions in the body. There are four basic types of tissue: muscle, nerve, epidermal, and connective.
osteoblast
A cell from which bone develops; a bone-forming cell.
squamous
covered with or formed of squamae or scales.
mesenteries
the membrane, consisting of a double layer of peritoneum, that invests the intestines, attaching them to the posterior wall of the abdomen, maintaining them in position in the abdominal cavity, and supplying them with blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics, esp. the part of this membrane investing the jejunum and ileum.
columnar
shaped like a column
macrophages
Any of the large phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system.
homeostasis
the tendency of a system, esp. the physiological system of higher animals, to maintain internal stability, owing to the coordinated response of its parts to any situation or stimulus tending to disturb its normal condition or function.
fibroblasts
A cell that gives rise to connective tissue.
adipose tissue
loose connective tissue in which fat cells accumulate.
abdominal cavity
the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
pepsin
an enzyme, produced in the stomach, that in the presence of hydrochloric acid splits proteins into proteoses and peptones.
villi
one of the long, soft, straight hairs covering the fruit, flowers, and other parts of certain plants
lacteal
any of the minute lymphatic vessels that convey chyle from the small intestine to the thoracic duct
peristalsis
the progressive wave of contraction and relaxation of a tubular muscular system, esp. the alimentary canal, by which the contents are forced through the system
gastrin
a hormone that stimulates the secretion of gastric juice.
herbivores
An animal that feeds chiefly on plants.
bile
bitter, alkaline, yellow or greenish liquid, secreted by the liver, that aids in absorption and digestion, esp. of fats.
secretin
a polypeptide hormone, produced in the small intestine, that activates the pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice.
lipase
any of a class of enzymes that break down fats, produced by the liver, pancreas, and other digestive organs or by certain plants.
bolus
a round mass of medicinal material, larger than an ordinary pill. Abbreviation: bol.
diastole
the normal rhythmical dilatation of the heart during which the chambers are filling with blood. Compare systole (def. 1).
hemolymph
a fluid in the body cavities and tissues of invertebrates, in arthropods functioning as blood and in some other invertebrates functioning as lymph
fibrinogen
a globulin occurring in blood and yielding fibrin in blood coagulation
fibrin
the insoluble protein end product of blood coagulation, formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin in the presence of calcium ions
thrombus
a fibrinous clot that forms in and obstructs a blood vessel, or that forms in one of the chambers of the heart
trachea
the tube in humans and other air-breathing vertebrates extending from the larynx to the bronchi, serving as the principal passage for conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe
platelets
A minute, nonnucleated, disklike cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting. Also called blood platelet, thrombocyte.
venules
A small vein, especially one joining capillaries to larger veins
alveoli
an air cell of the lungs, formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways
myoglobin
hemoglobin of muscle, weighing less and carrying more oxygen and less carbon monoxide than blood hemoglobin
lysozyme
an enzyme that is destructive of bacteria and functions as an antiseptic, found in tears, leukocytes, mucus, egg albumin, and certain plants
cd8
A glycoprotein on the surface of killer cells that enhances binding with MHC molecules.
cd4
a protein on the surface of T cells and other cells, functioning as a receptor for the AIDS virus antigen
phagocytosis
the ingestion of a smaller cell or cell fragment, a microorganism, or foreign particles by means of the local infolding of a cell's membrane and the protrusion of its cytoplasm around the fold until the material has been surrounded and engulfed by closure of the membrane and formation of a vacuole: characteristic of amebas and some types of white blood cells
rh factor
any of a type of specific antigen present on the surface of red blood cells, persons having inherited such antigens being designated Rh+ (Rh positive) and persons lacking them, a much smaller group, being designated Rh− (Rh negative): blood of Rh− persons is incompatible with Rh+ blood because of antibody reaction, and an Rh− woman who bears an Rh+ baby will have formed antibodies to the fetal blood that, unless removed from her bloodstream by apheresis in a subsequent pregnancy, will be carried across the placenta and destroy red blood cells of the next Rh+ fetus, resulting in erythroblastosis in the newborn.
histamine
a histidine-derived amine compound that is released mainly by damaged mast cells in allergic reactions, causing dilation and permeability of blood vessels and lowering blood pressure
chemokines
Any of various cytokines produced in acute and chronic inflammation that mobilize and activate white blood cells.
perforin
a protein produced by killer cells of the immune system that causes disintegration of targeted cells by forming pores in their membranes.
pyrogens
A substance that produces fever
interferon
any of various proteins, produced by virus-infected cells, that inhibit reproduction of the invading virus and induce resistance to further infection
epitope
a determining agent or factor.
thermoregulation
the regulation of body temperature
osmoregulation
the process by which cells and simple organisms maintain fluid and electrolyte balance with their surroundings
torpor
sluggish inactivity or inertia
excretion
the substance excreted, as urine or sweat, or certain plant products
estivation
the arrangement of the parts of a flower in the bud.
hibernation
to spend the winter in close quarters in a dormant condition, as bears and certain other animals. Compare
ectotherm
a cold-blooded animal.
renin
a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the kidneys that is involved in the release of angiotensin.
filtration
liquid that has been passed through a filter.
euryhaline
of an aquatic organism) tolerating a wide range of salinity
hormone
Also called phytohormone. any of various plant compounds, as auxin or gibberellin, that control growth and differentiation of plant tissue.
endorphin
any of a group of peptides occurring in the brain and other tissues of vertebrates, and resembling opiates, that react with the brain's opiate receptors to raise the pain threshold.
melatonin
a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in inverse proportion to the amount of light received by the retina, important in the regulation of biorhythms: in amphibians, it causes a lightening of the skin.
epinephrine
a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla upon stimulation by the central nervous system in response to stress, as anger or fear, and acting to increase heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and carbohydrate metabolism
ecdysone
an insect hormone that stimulates metamorphosis
calcitonin
a polypeptide hormone that participates in the regulation of calcium levels in vertebrates by inhibiting loss of calcium from bone to the blood.
thyronxine
the thyroid gland hormone that regulates the metabolic rate of the body.
androgens
any substance, as testosterone or androsterone, that promotes male characteristics.
glucagon
a hormone secreted by the pancreas that acts in opposition to insulin in the regulation of blood glucose levels
progestin
any substance having progesteronelike activity
hymen
a fold of mucous membrane partly closing the external orifice of the vagina in a virgin
vestibule
any of various cavities or hollows regarded as forming an approach or entrance to another cavity or space, as that of the internal ear.
scrotum
the pouch of skin that contains the testes.
clitoris
the erectile organ of the vulva, homologous to the penis of the male.
fission
the division of an organism into new organisms as a process of reproduction.
urethra
the membranous tube that extends from the urinary bladder to the exterior and that in the male conveys semen as well as urine.
coitus
sexual intercourse, esp. between a man and a woman
acrosome
an organelle covering the head of animal sperm and containing enzymes that digest the egg cell coating, thus permitting the sperm to enter the egg.
gonads
An organ in animals that produces gametes, especially a testis or ovary.
oviduct
either of a pair of tubes that transport the ova from the ovary to the exterior, the distal ends of which form the uterus and vagina in higher mammals
morula
the mass of cells resulting from the cleavage of the ovum before the formation of a blastula.
blastocoel
the cavity of a blastula, arising in the course of cleavage
epigenesis
the theory that an embryo develops from the successive differentiation of an originally undifferentiated structure (opposed to preformation).
blastula
the early developmental stage of an animal, following the morula stage and consisting of a single, spherical layer of cells enclosing a hollow, central cavity.
gastrulation
any process, as invagination, by which a blastula or other form of embryo is converted into a gastrula
amniotes
Any of a group of vertebrates that have an amnion during embryonic development, including reptiles, birds, and mammals.
amnions
the innermost of the embryonic or fetal membranes of reptiles, birds, and mammals; the sac in which the embryo is suspended
allantois
a vascular, extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and certain mammals that develops as a sac or diverticulum from the ventral wall of the hindgut
chorion
the outermost of the extraembryonic membranes of land vertebrates, contributing to the formation of the placenta in the placental mammals.
allantois
a vascular, extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and certain mammals that develops as a sac or diverticulum from the ventral wall of the hindgut.
aspartate
a salt or ester formed from aspartic acid.
neuropeptides
Any of various short-chain peptides found in brain tissue, such as endorphins
pons
any tissue connecting two parts of a body organ or structure
ventricles
The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and contracts to force it into the aorta.
thalamus
the middle part of the diencephalon through which sensory impulses pass to reach the cerebral cortex
axons
The usually long process of a nerve fiber that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.

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glycine
a colorless, crystalline, sweet, water-soluble solid, H2NCH2COOH, the simplest amino acid: used chiefly in organic synthesis and biochemical research. Abbreviation: Gly; Symbol: G
serotonin
a neurotransmitter, derived from tryptophan, that is involved in sleep, depression, memory, and other neurological processes.
basal nuclei
indicating a standard low level of activity of an organism, as during total rest
oligodendrocytes
One of the cells comprising the oligodendroglia
myofibrils
Any of the threadlike fibrils that make up the contractile part of a striated muscle fiber. Also called sarcostyle.
sclera
a dense, white, fibrous membrane that, with the cornea, forms the external covering of the eyeball
choroid
like the chorion; membranous
cornea
the transparent anterior part of the external coat of the eye covering the iris and the pupil and continuous with the sclera.
malleus
the outermost of a chain of three small bones in the middle ear of mammals. Also called hammer. Compare incus (def. 1), stapes.
incus
the middle one of a chain of three small bones in the middle ear of humans and other mammals. Compare malleus, stapes.
iris
any plant of the genus Iris, having showy flowers and sword-shaped leaves. Compare iris family.
cochlea
a spiral-shaped cavity forming a division of the internal ear in humans and in most other mammals.
retina
the innermost coat of the posterior part of the eyeball that receives the image produced by the lens, is continuous with the optic nerve, and consists of several layers, one of which contains the rods and cones that are sensitive to light.
exteroreceptors
a receptor responding to stimuli originating outside the body.