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122 Cards in this Set

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epidemiology
the study of the distribution and determinants of health in populations
clinical manifestation
diarrhea, respiratory, CNS, cardiovascular, sepsis
causative organisms
bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, prion
transmission
contact, food or water borne, air borne, vector borne, perinatal
reservoir
human, animal (zoonoses) soil, water
modes of transmission-direct (person to person)
body fluids or lesions of an infected person, fecal-oral, airborne by droplet spread; sexually transmitted
modes of transmission-airborne
pathogen in air
modes of transmission- vehicle borne
contanct w/ inanimate substance or medium a formite (like a doorhandel) food, water, needle
modes of transmission-vector borne
animal like insect carries a disease causing agent from one host to another
modes of transmission-verticl
from mother to child
human-human
measles, m. tuberculosis, STIs
human-insect-human
malaria, dengue, sleeping sickness
vertebrate-insect-vertebrate-human
west nile, lyme disease
incidence
# new infections in a time period
prevalence
total # of cases in a time period (used w/ chronic, non-cummunicable conditions)
morbidity
illness
mortality
death
all exposures cause infection
false
not all infections cause diesease
true
incubation period
time between exposure to an infectious agent and onset of symptoms or signs of infection
inapparent (subclinical) infections
infection that can be documented by isolation and culturing of the agent but does not cause symptoms
carrier
person who harbors an infectious agent and can transmit it to others, but does not have symptoms. short term or long term carrier.
pathogens
microbes that cuase disease-viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasties, etc
toxins
small organic molecules or pieces of protein or bacterial cell wall that are released when bacteria die (btulism, anthrax)
endemic
always present in a population
sporadic occurences
limited in a scope and affect a few individuals in a small area
epidemics
more widespread outbreaks in which a disease occurs more often than usual
pandemics
worldwide epidemics(influenza)
eradication
no risk of infection or disease in the absence of vaccination or any other control meansures (smallpox is and polio soon)
elimination
local eradication
control
limits the incidence of infection in a local area
influenza
causes the most death each year. constantly changes
antigenic drift
mutations bring gradual change in antigens so that antibody against the original virus becomes less effective
antigenic shift
major change occurs in antigens b/c two different influenza viruses attack the same cell. human antibodies are ineffective and most ppl will become ill when exposed to the virus.
influenza A
H3N2-most common
H1N1 1918 pandemic
H5N1 avain flu
virus
acellular-not composed of cells, must replicate inside a living cell. smaller than bacteria. have outer capsid made of protein and an inner core made of nucleic acid(either DNA or RNA) attaches, penetrates, replicates, biosynthesis, maturation, release
prions
proteinaceous infections particles, cause degenerative nervous system diseases and wasting diseases. transimitted by ingestion of brain and nerve tissues from infected individuals. causes mad cow.
bacteria
bigger than virus, smaller than human cell. have nuclear material inside and cell wall. prokaryotic cell- single circular strand of DNA. reproduce by binary fission-when one parent cell splits into 2 daughter cells.
gram stain
used to identify a bacterial pathogen-identifies relative amount of peptidoglycan in the cell wall
gram positive
thick layer..bonds to the stain
gram negative
do not bind to the stain
bacilli
rod shaped bacteria
cocci
spherical shaped bacteria
fungi
molds and yeasts
tineas
type of fungi, causes ringwom and atheletes foot
candidiasis
yeast imbalance(fungi)
histoplasmosis
fungi-found in soil and bird droppings
protozoans
eukaryotic cells with a nucleus and organells
helminths
worms that may live in the intestine, liver, lungs, blood or other body parts, including hte brain
chlamydia
most common STI in USa, may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility in women. bacterial
gonorrhea
PID in women; easier to detect in men. bacterial
syphilis
bacterial; chancre, rash, weakened arterial walls and nervous system impairment, can take antibiotics
genital herpes
viral; can by asymptomatic or cause blisters; no cure; comes back with stress; 2
1-cold sores, fever blisters
genital warts
associated with tumors and cervical cancer HPV
hepatitis viruses
some are stis, viral and may cause chronic liver disease
trichomoniasis
caused by protozoan
bacterial vaginosis
foul fishy discharge
candidiasis
yeast infection
public lice
type of sti
AIDS
aquired, not genetic
HIV
replicates within white blood cells and destroys them and weakens the immune system
normal cd4 t cell count
800
stage 1 acute
500 +
state 2 chronic
200-499
stage 3 aids
below 200
women have a higher biological susceptibility to HIV
true
cleavage
cell division withouot growth
morphogenesis
shaping of embryo
morula
solid mass of cells bunch of berries
blastocyst
balls of cells formed from morula
embryonic disk
2 layers of cells b/t 2 cavities
gastrula
embryo composed of ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
ectoderm
skin epidermis, accessory organs, nervous system-brain, spinal cord, ganglia, nerves, retina, lens, cornea of eye, inner ear, lining of nose, mouth and anus, tooth enamel
mesoderm
all muscles, dermis of skin, all connective tissue, kidneys, reproductive system
endoderm
lining of digestive tract, trachea, bronchi, lungs, gallbladder, urethra,
liver, pancreas, thyroid, thymus, urinary bladder
yolk sac
first site of red blood cell formation
allantois
contributes to cardiovascular system
chorion
becomes part of the placenta
neurula
nervous system develops from ectoderm located just above the notochord
states of embryonic development
fertilized egg-cleavage forms egg-morula-blastocyst-embryonic disk-gastrula-neurula
embryo
weeks 2-8, when the zygote begins dividing
fetus
3-9 months, has human appearance
folic acid
take this multivitamin if might become pregnant
sex of individual is determined at the moment of fertilization
true
umbilical arteries
exchange gases and nutrients between maternal and fetal blood
umbilical veins
carries blood and o2 away from placenta to the fetus
umbilical cord
b/c placenta and fetus
ossification appear in bones at this age
3 months
when can sex be determined by docs?
3rd month
parturition
giving birth
states of parturition
mucous plug expelledd, cervix dilatese completely
baby's head descends and is delivered
placenta delivered
ectopic pregnancy
fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus
placenta previa
placenta blocks cerix
braxton hicks
false labor contractions
placental abrumption
placenta separates from the uterine wall b4 delivery. no oxygen or nutrients for child
preeclampsia(toxemia)
pregnancy induced hypertension...
breech
rump first
gerontology
study of aging
testes
produce sperm and sex hormones
epididymides
where sperm mature and some are stored
vas defernes
conduct and store sperm
seminal vesicles
nutrients and fluids for sperm
prostate gland
basic fluid to sperm
urethra
conducts sperm
bulbourethral glands
mucoid fluid to semen
spermatogenesis
formation of sperm
testosterone
reproductive organ development and functioning and male secondary sex characteristics
impotence
erectile dysfunction
cryptorchidism
testes not fully descended
ovaries
produce egg and sex hormones
oviducts, uterine or fallopian tubes
conduct egg, location of fertilization
uterus, womb
houses fetus
cervix
contains opening to uterus
follicles
contains immature egg, oocyte
uterine cycle
menstruation, proliferative phase (lining built back up), ovulation, secretory phase (luterine wall becoming dense in case needs to have nutrients for embryo)
endometriosis
endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus
pelvic inflammatory disease
caused by bacterial infections
follicular cysts
may need to be removed if too big
ovarian cancer
hard to diagnos early
cervical cancer
HPV, pap smears test for this
uterine/endometrial cancer
post menopausal, excess estrogen causes it
breast cancer
highly metastatic b/c connected with lymph system