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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ultimate explanation
reason that a trait of phenomenon is thought to have evolved; the adaptive advantage of that trait
Which proccess is know as reduction division?
proximate explanation
in biology, the immediate, mechanistic cause of a phenomenon (how it happens)
During the full meoisis process how many cells are created from the original parental cell
male reproductive cell
female reproductive cell
production of gametes (eggs or sperm)
a young developing organism. the stage after fertilization and zygote formation
a haploid reproductive cell that can fuse with another haploid cell to form a zygote. most multicellular eukaryotes have twoo distinct forms of gametes. egg cells and sperm cells. (reproductive cells)
the diploid cell formed by the union of two haploid gametes (egg + sperm). capable of undergoing embryological development to form an adult.
a type of cell division in which one diploid parent cell produces four haploid reproductive cells (gametes). in meiosis, chromosome pairs synapse and can exchange genes via crossing over.
one of any pair of chromosomes that do not carry the genes that determine gender
a section of DNA that encodes information for building a polypeptide or a functional molecule of RNA. influences one or more hereditary traits in an individual
non-sister chromatids
the chromosome copies in homologous chromosomes
the distinctive appearance of all of the chromosomes in an individual, including the number of chromosomes and their length and banding patterns
haploid number
the number of different types of chromosomes in a cell. smbolized by n
synapsed homologous chromsomes
the number of each type of chromosome present; equivalent to the number of haploid chromosome sets present
a particular version of a gene
having 1 of each type of chromosome. (n)
having 2 of each type of chromosome. (2n)
meoisis I phases
see picture
portion of the chromosome where sister chromotids are joined
meoisis II phases
see pic
sister chromatids
the chromosome copies in a replicated chromosome
homologous chromosomes. in a diploid organism, chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and gene content. (although genes are the same, alleles may be different)
structure made up of DNA and proteins, carries the cell's hereditary information (genes)
phases of mitosis
see pic
1. Cell matures & carries on normal activities
2. DNA copied & appears as chromatin
3. Nucleolus visible
late prophase (mitosis)
1. Spindle forms with aster at each pole
2. Nuclear membrane & nucleolus disintegrate
3. Centromere of chromosomes attaches to spindle fibers
anaphase (mitosis)
1. Centromeres split apart
2. Homologs move to opposite poles of the cell
telophase/cytokinesis (mitosis)
1. Nuclear membrane & nucleolus reform
2. Cell pinches into 2 cells in animals
3. In plants, a cell plate separates the 2 new cells
early prophase (mitosis)
1. Chromosomes condense & become visible
2. Centrioles separate & spindle starts forming
metaphase (mitosis)
1. Chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell attached to kinetochore fibers of spindle