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55 Cards in this Set

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monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base
nucleotide
granular material visible within the nucleus containing the genetic info that is passed from generation to the next
chromatin
globular protein molecule the helps coil DNA tightly in chromatin
histone
enzyme that proofreads new DNA strands, ensuring that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA
DNA polymerase
copying process by a which cell's DNA duplicates
replication
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
gene
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
mRNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
rRNA
type of RNA that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
tRNA
process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence of RNA
transcription
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and seperates the DNA strands during transcription
RNA polymerase
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
promoter
intervening sequence of DNA; does not code for a protein
intron
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
exon
three-nucleotide sequence on mRNA that codes for a single amino acid
codon
decoding of an mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
translation
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule taht are complementary bases to an mRNA codon
anticodon
change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information
mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting nucleotide
frameshift mutation
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
polyploidy
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that seperates the cell from its surrounding; basic unit of all forms of life
cell
idea that all living thing s are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from preexisting cells
cell theory
structure that contains the cell's genetic material and controls the cell's activities
nucleus
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
organelle
material inside the cell membrane - not including the nucleus
cytoplasm
layer of two membranes that surroudns the nucleus of a cell
nuclear envelope
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic info that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
chromosome
small dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins
nucleolus
small particel in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
ribosome
internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
ER
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the ER
golgi body
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
lysosome
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
vacuole
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
mitochondrion
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
chloroplast
network of protein filaments within some cells that help the cell maintain its shape adn is involved in many forms of cell movemet
cytoskeleton
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear enevelope that help organize cell division
centriole
thin flexible barried around a cell that regulats what enters and leaves the cell
cell membrane
stron supporting layer around a cell membrane in plants, algae and some bacteria
cell wall
double layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
lipid bilayer
when the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution
equilibrium
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
isotonic
the solution with the greater concentration of two solutes
hypotonic
the solutions with the lesser concentration of two solutes
hypertonic
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
facilitated diffusion
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient
active transport
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
endocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
exocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
phagocytosis
process by whcih a cell takes in liquids from the surrounding environment
pinocytosis
teh study of traits passed one from oen generation to the next
genetics
the union of an egg and sperm cell
fertilization
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
true-breeding
specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
trait
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
hybrids