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108 Cards in this Set

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includes tarsiers, prosimians (lemurs and lorises), and anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans)
primates
all extinct human-like species and modern humans
hominids
upright walking - which frees hands for novel tasks
bipedalism
the sum of all behavioral patterns of a social group, passed on through generations by way of learning and symbolic behavior
culture
members of the genus Homo
humans
a donor cell's sex pilus latches onto a recipient cell and then retracts, pulling it close
prokaryotic conjugation
a small, self-replicating circle of DNA with just a few genes
plasmid
infectious, disease-causing agents that invade target species and multiply in or on them
pathogens
like the first eukaryotic cells - they have a nucleus, but most are single-celled organisms (parasites, decomposers, etc.)
protists
heterotrophic protists that live as single cells, and move using one or more flagella
flagellated protozoans
among microbes, it is a protective covering that forms from cell secretions. Cells can survive outside the host body, inside these
cyst
these get nutrients from nonliving organic material. Most fungi are these.
saprobes
some fungi live in a mutually beneficial partnership with a photosynthetic organism that supplies the fungus with nutrients. This relationship is called...
mutualism
the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of branched filaments
mycelium
the filament in a mycelium
hypha
a noncellular infectious agent with 2 characteristics: a protein coat wrapped around genetic material, and a few enzymes. It cannot reproduce itself, instead, the host cell is tricked into making copies of it
virus
viruses that infect bacteria
bacteriophages
the removal of all trees from large tracks of land
deforestation
a haploid gamete-making body
gameotophyte
after 2 gametes fuse at fertilazation and become diploid zygote forms, it grows and develops into this...
sporophyte
produced by a sporophyte, it is a resting structure that withstands unfavorable environmental conditions, as well as giving rise to new gameophytes
spore
in embryos, cell divisions give rise to these 3 primary tissues...
ectoderm, endoderm, and in most cases, mesoderm
animals that have a backbone
vertebrates
backboneless animals (account for most species)
invertebrates
tiny, soft-bodied species shaped like disks, fronds, and blobs that were living on or in seafloor sediments by 610 million years ago
Ediarcarans
when body parts are arrayed around a central point
radial symmetry
body parts that mirror eachother
bilateral symmetry
a concentration of nerve and sensory cells in the anterior end of the body. Most bilateral groups have this
cephalization
bilateral animals that have 4 unique features that appear in embryos and often persist into adulthood
chordate
a group of organisms that have a chamber of cartilage or bone that encloses the brain. This includes fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
craniates
the hinged, bony feeding structure in some organisms
jaws
segments of the internal skeleton that are made of bone or cartilage
vertebrae
appendages that help propel, stabalize, and guide the fish body through water
fins
respiratory organs with moist, thin folds and adjacent blood vessels
gills
internally moistened sacs for gas exchange
lungs
model that explains for different patterns (rapid then gradual) of speciation
puntuation model of speciation
a burst of divergences from a single lineage. It gives rise to many new species
adaptive radiation
A set of different niches that become filled typically with by a related group of species. Adaptive radiation requires these
adaptive zones
A way for a species to enter an adaptive zone: a chance modification in some body structure or function gives it the opportunity to exploit the new environment more efficiently
key innovation
an irrevable loss of a species
extinction
catastrophic losses of entire families or other groups
mass extinction
plant stems together with leaves. Above ground.
shoots
plant structures that grow downward and outward through soil
roots
localized regions of actively dividing cells that give rise to plant tissues
meristems
a kind of meristem that is in shoot and root tips, where all plant parts begin lengthening
apical meristem
a kind of meristem that increases the thickness of stems and roots
lateral meristems
a kind of plant tissue that makes up the most of the soft, new primary growth of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.
parenchyma
a kind of plant tissue that forms patches or rings in many lengthening stems and leaf stalks
collenchyma
a kind of plant tissue that gains strength to resist compression from fungal attacks
sclerenchyma
a vascular tissue that conducts water and dissolved mineral ions, and it structurally supports the plant
xylem
a vascular tissue that conducts sugars and other organic solutes
phloem
a dermal tissue that is typically a single layer of cells that secrete waxes and cutin onto their wall
epidermis
a dermal tissue that is a covering that helps the plant conserve water and deflect attacks by some pathogens. This is formed from empidermal cell secretions
cuticle
a small gap that forms across the epidermis when guard cells swell and move apart
stoma
leaflike structures that store or absorb food for plant embryos
cotyledons
multistranded cords that thread lengthwise through all ground tissue systems inside the stem
vascular bundles
a sugar factory that has many photosynthetic cells. Comes in many different shapes and sizes
leaf
vascular bundles in leaves
veins
a shoot's main zone of primary growth. It is a undeveloped shoot of meristem tissue
bud
these plants conserve water by opening their stomata at night. The next day, when their stomata closes, they use carbon dioxide in PS. An example is cacti
CAM plants
organic compounds rapidly flow through these tubes. They are located in phloem.
sieve tubes
these cells load organic compounds into neighboring sieve tubes
companion cells
the process that moves sucrose and all other dissolved compounds through the phloem of a vascular plant. High pressure drives this process
translocation
this theory says that organic compounds flow from a source to a sink because internal pressure builds up at the source end of the sieve tube system and pushes the solute-rich solution on toward any sink where solutes are being removed
pressure flow theory
molecules that capture light energy. They are the bridges from sunlight to PS. Each kind can absorb only specific wavelengths of light, and the rest are transmitted thru the molecule or reflected by it
pigment
the first stage of reaction in PS, when sunlight is converted to chemical bond energy of ATP
light-dependent reactions
the 2nd stage of reaction in PS, when glucose is made
light-independent reactions
the organelles of PS in all plants and certain protists
chloroplasts
the semifluid interior of the chloroplast that is enclosed by 2 outer membranes
stroma
this forms a compartment inside the stroma. It folds back on itself into what often looks like stacks of pancakes. The light-dependent reactions occur in this
thylakoid membrane
arrays of hundreds of pigments and other molecules that are "reaction centers." Chloroplasts have 2 types.
photosystems
a type of active transport protein
ATP synthases
a pathway that runs inside the stroma of chloroplasts. Sugars are formed in this
Calvin-Benson cycle
this enzyme contributes to the starting of the Calvin-Benson cycle
rubisco
the process of securing carbon from the environment by incorporating it into a stable organic compound
carbon fixation
plants who's photosynthetic cells are exposed to too much O2 and too little CO2, making it hard to produce sugar
C3 plants
these plants fix carbon twice, and can make more sugar on dry days
C4 plants
the breaking down of carbohydrates in pathways that do not use O2 to make ATP
fermentation
a breakdown pathway that uses O2 to extract energy very efficiently from glucose and other carbs
aerobic respiration
the reaction where enzymes rearrange a 6-carbon glucose molecule into 2 pyruvic molecules. Few ATP are formed.
glycolysis
an organic compound with a 3-carbon backbone
pyruvate
in this reaction enzymes break down pyruvate to CO2 and H2O. Few ATP are formed.
Krebs cycle
in this reaction O2 inside the mitochondrion accepts electrons and H2 at the end of the chains, forming H2O. Produces a lot of ATP
electron transfer phosphorylation
the 1st energy-releasing step of glycolsis, when 4 ATP are formed
substrate-level phosphorylation
the behavior is performed without having first been learned by actual experience in the environment
instinctive behavior
a program of coordinated muscle activity that will run to completion independently of feedback from the environment. This occurs after an organism recognizes a certain sign stimuli (one or two simple, well-defined environmental cues)
fixed action pattern
when organisms process info about experiences and use it to change or vary responses to stimuli
learned behavior
a form of learning triggered by exposure to a simple stimulus during a sensitive period, usually early in life
imprinting
intraspecific interactions that involve mixes of instinctive and learned behaviors by which individuals send and respond to cues. These have unambiguous meaning for a species
communication signals
a simple society formed (not consciously) by reproductive self-interest
selfish herd
genes associated with altruism can be favored by selection if they lead to behavior that will increase the number of offspring by an altruit's closest relatives
inclusive fitness
these are released from axon endings of neurons and act swiftly on target cells by diffusing across a tiny space between them
neurotransmitters
these molecules modify the conditions in nearby tissues
local signaling molecules
relays signals from outside the cell to target molecules inside the cell
second messenger
specialized reproductive shoots of a diploid sporophyte
flowers
a plant body that grows by mitotic division of a fertilized egg, leads to the formation of male and female gametophytes
sporophyte
male reproductive parts of a flower. They usually consist of an anther on top of a thin stalk of filament
stamen
the top part of a stamen that has 2-6 pairs of pollen sacs
anther
a flower's female reproductive parts. The upper portion of this is the stigma
carpel
the carpel's lower, swollen portion
ovary
structures in a which a haploid, egg-producing female gametophyte forms. Inside the ovary
ovules
air currents, animals, or any other agent that transfers pollen grains from male to female reproductive parts of flowering plants
pollenators
leads to the production of male gametophytes
microspores
leads to the production of female gametophyte
megaspores
triploid nutritive tissue in the seeds of flowering plants
endosperm
when one pollen grain lands on a receptive stigma, which leads to germination
pollination
seed leaves
cotyledons
the embryo, its food reserves, and the seed coat that now constitutes the mature ovule in this self-contained package
seed