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72 Cards in this Set

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Mycoplasma
Smallest free living bacteria
No Cell wall
Pleomorphic
Form Filaments
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
primary atypical pneumonia
"Walking Pneumonia"
Rickettsia
2-2 um gram negative rods
obligate intracellular parasites
trasmittted by anthropod vectors
Rickettsia rickettsiae
Rocky Mountain Spotted fever
rash on the extremties and moves towards the trunk

Treated with appropriate antibiotic
Rickettsia prowasekii
epidemic typhus
Rickettsia typhi
Endemic Typhus
Chlamydia
Comes in Elementary and Reticulate bodies
Elementary body
Infectious and resting state
Not very fragile
Reticulate state
reproducing and fragile
Chlamydia trachomatis
Wikipedia it
Lymphogranuloma venereum
Mimics gonorrhea
Inclusion conjunctiitis
eye infection that can cause blindness: Chlamydia
Chlamydia psittaci
Ornithisis, birds, mainly parrots, inhaling the bedding and dust of feces
Algae
Photosynthetic aquatic or terrestrial
Cell wall, major source of O2
produces toxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning
Fungi
Non- Photosynthetic, non-motile
Cell wall made of chitin
Unicellular, multicellular, or dimorphic
Zygomyces
Common bread mold
Basidiomycetes
Dutch elm disease, common mushrooms
Ascomycetes
Wiki it
Deuteromycetes
Fungi imperfecti- non-sexually reproductive
Fungal Reproduction
Diploid-> Haploid-> Dikaryotic
Hypha
underground "roots" that aquire nutriets and can grow into another mushroom
Fungal Spores
For reproduction
Mycelium
bunch of hypha
Fungal Toxins
Mycotoxins
Fungal Infections
Mycoses
Claviceps purpurea
ergot, found on grain, neurological effects that cause weird behavior
Aspergillus flavis
Aflatoxin
Amanita verma
Death Angel- Mushroom
dermatohytes tinea
ringworms
Candidiasis
Dimorphic fungus
Causes
Thrush- mouth
Superficial- nails and skin
Vaginal- yeast infections
Coddidioidomycosis
Valley Fever
Symptoms due to immune response
Similar to flu
Can disseminate: go to other organs and be fatal
Cryptococcal menigoencephalitis
Encapsulated fungus, inhaled
Headache, difficult thinking, dizziness, vomiting, weight loss, paralysis, seizures, death
Weeks to months in healthy person
Death in two days in immunocompripized person
Histoplasma casulatum
not capsulated

Spelunker's disease
Flu like from bat or bird droppings inhaled
Protozoa
Unicellular
no cell wall
not photosynthetic
classified on motility
Sarcodina
Pseudopods- amoeba
Mastigophora
Flagella
Ciliata
Cillia
Sporozoa
not motile
Active form (protozoa)
Trophozoite
Resting form (protozoa)
cyst
Protozoan Reproduction
Fission
Budding
Schizogony
Conjugation of ciliates
Schizongony
nucleus divides and produces more than two organisms
Entamoeba histolytica
Ameobic dysentery
Via Feces
Cysts extracted and ingested
Mastigophora: Giardia lamblis
Oily stool
Fecal/oral transmisison
Ingestion of cysts
Examine stool for trophozites
Trichmonas vaginalis
No cyst stage
Most prevalient pathogenic protozoan
180 million cases worldwide
5-8 million cases in North America
Males mostly asymptomatic
Females discharge and itch
Hemoflagellates: Trypansoma brucai
African Sleeping Sickness
Transmitted by bites of tsetse fly
Invades blood, lymph and CNA
Progressively worsening symptoms
Trypansoma Cruzi
Chaga Disease
Transmitted by reduvidd bugs (kissing bugs)
Forms aggregates in lymph
When it lysis it causes tissue necrosis, especially around the heart
Death from heart failure
Balantidium coli
only known pathogenic ciliata
Fecal oral transmission
Associated with swine
Plasmodium
Four pathogenic species
Plasmodium falciparum
Malaria: most severe

Transmitted by female anophelies mosquito

Complex life cycle
Toxoplasmosis
Different in healthy adults and immunodeficient people

Causes severe birth defects in fetuses

Definitive host is Feline
Helminths
Parasitic, reduced digestive system, reduced nervous system, reduced locomotive system
Complex reproductive system
Definitive Host
Carries adult form of parasite
Intermediate Hosts
Carry the larvae of the parasite
Trematodes
UNSEGMENTED Flukes
6mm - 12 mm
Definitive host humans
Intermediate snail and crayfish
Schostosome: blood fluke (Trematode)
Eggs imbedded in tissue
immune response causes symptoms
Schistosome (Trematode)
Eggs in water
Free swimming larvae: miracidium
Infect snails
Cecaria released from snail
cause swimmer's itch
Cestodes
SEGMENTED FLATWORM: such as tapeworms
Taenia saginata
Beef Tapeworm
Definitive Host: Human
proglottids excreted
Wriggle away from feces and are ingested by cattle. Eggs hatch and cysts get in cow flesh, excyst in us.
Nematodes
Round worms
Enterobuis vermicularis
Pinworms
Eggs infect humans around the anus area
Necator americanus
Hookworms
Larvae penetrate skin
pathogenicity depends on # of organisms
Hookworms kill via loss of blood
Creeping Eruption
larval form of hookworms penetrate skin and crawl around and then penetrate out
Trichinella spirilum
Larvae infect humans
lives in the muscle
Can be fatal depending on # ingested
Loss of muscle tone
Filariasis microfalaria
Elephantitis, extreme swelling
Loaiasis
Loa loa; generally doesn't cause blindness

Deer Flies
Onchocerca volvulus
River Blindess
Blackflies
Dracunculiasis medianesis
Guinea worm
Transmitted by water flea
Ingested and crawl out of skin
Ectoparasites
Outside of host parasites
Ticks
Lice
Leaches
Viron
Virus Particle
Virus Shapes
Isometric, Helical, Complex
Viral Envelope
from host cell, phospholipid bilayer with spikes