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129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hematocrit Level. In Humans?
Ratio of Plasma to Blood cell
55 Plasma 45 Blood Cell
Loss of Red Blood Cell
Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia
Sickle Cell Anemia (3)
Normal? Abnormal?
-Inherited adaptation to malaria
Normal is Glutamate
Abnormal is Valine in the 6th AA in the 200 AA chain
S is Normal Hemoglobin
s is Sickle cell

Ss- Heterozygous/incomplete dominance.

Will experience some effects of the disease
Sickel Cells (3)
Break Easily, Block blood vessels, Sticky
Penicious Anemia
Lack of Vitamin B 12
Aplastic Anemia
Bone marrow does not produce RBC as a result of chemotherapy for Cancer.
-Transport of gas
-Control pH of blood stream
Leukocyte Types
Granulocytes - Cells with granules

Agranulocytes - Cells w/o Granules
Lysosome -Vacuoles filled w/ Digestive Enzymes

- Vesicles filled w/ histamine
Study of Tissue
Basophil (3)
-Granules filled w/ histamine
-Cause Allergic Reactions
-Phagocytosis- Consumes foreign Bacteria
Secreted to make you feel bad
Eosinophil (2)
- Fights Parasite
- Granules are Lysosomes
- Most numerous of the WBC
- 2nd line of defense against infection
Monocyte (2)
- Convertible- Round in Blood, Macrophage outside

- Stimulates Immune Response
- Specific Immune Response
- T cells - Processed by Thalymus Gland
- B-cells - Come from Bones
All WBC comes from _____
Knocks out T-cells so there is no immune response
NK cells
Natural Killer Cells

-Any infected cell will display itself and will be attacked by T-cells and NKcells.
1 Word for Osmotic Pressure
Capillary Blood Flow
Arterial End has high bp and forces Fluid Out

Venous End has low bp and Sucks Fluid In
% of fluid that goes back into capillary and % that stays out

What happens to % that stays out?
70% is sucked back in, 30% stays out

Picked up by lymphatic system
Lymph Node
Filters for fluids returning to tissue
Therapy that kills Cancer
External Respiration
Gas exchange w/ Atmosphere
Internal Respiration
Gas exchange between Blood and Cells
Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis - Breakdown of Glucose to make ATP
Phylum Arthropod
Class Insectas
Respiration Method?
Breaths by
Tracheal Tubes - External Resp
Blood of Insects - DOES NOT carry O2 & CO2
Fish use Gills for __(2)___
External Respiration
Positive Pressure Breathing
Positive Pressure Breathing
Negative Pressure Breathing
Inhalation (3)
-Ribs Rise
-Diaphragm Flatten
-Volume Increases & Pressure decreases so air is sucked in
Exhalation (3)
-Ribs go down
-Diaphragm goes up
- Volume Decreases & Pressure increases to push air out
1 Atm
760 torr
760 mm Hg
76 cm Hg
29.9 inch Hg
Composition of Atmosphere
79% = N2
20% = O2
1% = all others
CO2 = 0.02%
Amount of O2 in Blood Stream at Alvioli
less than 20mm Hg
Distance between Alveoli & Capillary
Carbonic Anhydrase
Catalyzes interconversion of CO2&H2O into H+ and HCO3-
Chloride Shift
HCO3- leaves cell and Cl- comes in
Travel of CO2 in Blood Stream
7% as dissolved Gas
13% Attached to Hemoglobin
80% travels as Bicarbonate
Excretion of Single Cell Organisms
Removal of ammonia NH3

Excretion of Higher organisms
Convert NH3 into Uric Acid/Urea
Malphagian Tube
Insect Gut
Does the work of our Kidney
Sorts, saves, and gets rid of wastes
Insect Exoskeloton
Water Proof
Formation of NH3
Takes Place in the Liver

Amino acid --> Carbon
--> NH3

Carbon --> Sugar
NH3 --> Urea
Functions of Kidney (5)
1) Remove Waste Products
2) Produce Calcitirol
3) Controls Salt-water Balance
4) Maintains Blood Pressure
5) Makes ErythroProtein to Produce RBC
Each Kidney is made up of 1 million of these
Kidney Workload (3)
Filters 1800L blood/day
Filters out 180L of Fluid
Reabsorbs 178L
Layers of Kidney
Renal Cortex
Renal Medula
Renal Papilla & Pelvis
Where most of Kidney's work is Done
Renal Pyramid
Minor & Major Calyx
Renal Papilla releases waste into Minor Calyx

Minor Calyxs gather to form Major Calyx
Glomerular Filtration
Creates a plasma-like Filtrate of the blood
Tubular Reabsorbtion
Removes useful Solutes from Filtrate & Returns them to Blood
Tubular Secretion
Removal of Material from Blood to Urine
Kidney Water Conservation
Removes H2O from Urine and returns to Blood
- Concentrating Wastes
Occurs in PCT
Proxima Convoluted Tube
-Tubular Reabsorbtion
Occurs in DCT
Distal Convoluted Tube
- Tubular Secretion
Glomerulus? Made Of?
Functions in Glomerular Filtration

- Made of capillaries
Cells with feet on Glomerulus.
Lamina Densa
Layer of protein in Glomerulus
ADH works on cells of collecting ducs to form these protons to make cell membrane more permeable
Filtrate does not include ___(4)
large molecules
What drives filtrate through Kidney filter?
Blood Pressure drives fluid through Glomerulus
What are affected by SGLT, and transported back to the PCT? (5)
Transport Maxima
Kidney will reabsorb material as fast as it can.

Whatever it cannot absorb will go into urine.
Helps to lower blood sugar
Renal Threshold for Sugar
Renin Angio Tensin System
-Controls Blood Pressure
-Not involved with osmotic Pressure
What happens when you eat salt?
Causes your body to conserve water, and your BP goes up
What will happen if you don't have Adaquate blood pressure?
Kidney Failure
What is Juxtaglomecular Apparatus? What does it do?
Structure near the Glomerutus.
- Checks on BP
What triggers the release of Angiotensinogen? Where is it made?
Renin triggers the release

-Made in the Liver
What organ converts Angiotensinogen I into Angiotensinogen II?
Functions of AngioTensinogen (3)
1) Makes you Thirsty
2) Triggers release of ADH
3) Release of Aldosterone, which operates on pumps to retain more sodium
High BP could be a result of too much ______?
Condensation of Dehydration Synthesis
Removal of water to form a molecule.
Addition of water to break a molecule
How many Amino Acids are used for human nutrition?
20 different R groups for 20 Different nutrients
Hydrolitic Enzymes Break Method
Breakdown molecules by adding water
Amylase breaks ______ and _____ Bonds
Carbohydrates, Glycosidic Bonds
Peptidase breaks ______ and _____ Bonds
Protein, Peptide Bonds
Lipase breaks ______ and _____ Bonds
Lipids, Esther Bones
Membrane Permeability is directly proportional to _____?
Amount of unsaturated fatty acids
Lipase breakage liberates what? (2)
3 Fatty acids
1 Glycerole
Intracellular Digestion
Digestion inside of the cell itself
Gastro-Vascular Cavity
Cavity for Digestion and Secretion inside jellyfish, or Hydra
Phylum Nematida
Unsegmented Roundworms that has a Complete Digestive Tract
Ascaris Lumbricoides (3)
-Major intestinal parasite in 3rd world countries.
-Breaks down lung tissues and digestive tract.
-Makes body more prone to pnemonia and infection
Mammal Dentition and Jaw?
We have specific dentition

We have Mandible - 1 bone Jaw
How do Herbivores digest Cellulose?
Fermentation - Use of bacteria to breakdown Cellulose.
How does Cow digest?
Cow has 4 chambered stomach
One is called Rumen which holds 40-50 gallons of water for Fermentation
Products of Fermentation?
VFA - Volatile Fatty Acids
Characteristic of Carnivore Stomach
It can expand. A lion's stomach can hold up to 20lbs of food.
Parts of Small Intestine
Parts of Large Intestine (Colon)(5)
Ascending Colon
Transverse Colon
Descending Colon
What percent of digestion occurs in Small Intestine
97% - 98%
Stomach can only absorb_____ (3)
Caffiene, Water, Alcohol
What does Large Intestine Absorb?(3)
Vitamin K
Vitamin B
Large intestine of Rabbits/Birds/Other Mammals
They cannot absorb Vitamins

- Some eat their feces to absorb vitamins
What pH is Salivary Amylase?
What does it do?

Breaks down Starch
Chief Cells
Produces Pepsin(Peptidase) To break down Protein
Parietal Cells
Produces HCl pH 2
G-Cells (2)
-Stimulate Chief & Parietal Cells

-Stimulate Stomach contraction to Churn Food
What covers the Pepsin Enzyme?
Cap called Zymogen.
What removes the cap to reveal the active site?
HCl in the stomach.
How does stomach produce HCl
Carbon Anhydrase, converts CO2 and H2O into H+ and HCO3-
H+ and HCO3- goes out. Chloride shift, H+ and Cl- mix for HCl
What controls the 3 cells of the stomach?
Vagus nerve
Found in small intestine to increase SA
Plicae Circularis
Folds in Duodnum to expand SA
Small extentions on villa called?
Micro Villa
Rush Boarder Enzyme Found in? Functions in?
Digestive Enzyme found on Micro Villa surface

- Breaks Dissacharides into Monosacharides

- Breaks Proteins into Single Amino Acid or Dipeptides
CO2 + Hemoglobin = ?
Carboxy Amino Hemoglobin
What are the water soluble Nutrients (3) and where do they go?
Carbs Lipids Proteins, Absorbed by capillaries and sent to Liver
Where do Fat Soluble Nutrients go?
Goes to Lacteal, then to Blood Stream, then Liver
What is the x in the Villous?
What is pH of stomach? Sm Intestine? and how is it regulated?
pH stomach = 2 Sm Int = 8
Regulated by secretion of Bile and Sodium Bicarbonate
What happens when Food enters Duodenum?
It sends out 3 hormones for assistance.

- Secretin

- CholeCystoKinase (CCK)

- G.I.P - Gastric Inhibitory Peptide
Secretin (2)
-Releases NaHCO3 to neutralize Acid.
- Slows down delivery of Food by Stomach
CholeCystoKinase (2)
-Cause Gall Bladder to release Bile

-Cause Pancreas to secrete Digestive Enzyme
Gastric Inhibitory peptide
-Slows down stomach
What molecules cannot go through Pump?
1) Lipids
2) No peptide greater than (3)
What % of H2O Absorbed by PCT?
What group found in Glycosidic Bond?
2 OH Groups
What group of Peptide Bond?
Amino Carboxy Group
Gastrin (2)
Stimulates Chief & Parietal Cells

Stimulates muscles of stomach to Churn Food