Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/22

Click to flip

22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Binary Fission
-asexual reproduction by division of one cell body into 2 equal parts.
-Prokaryotes
-Begins with DNA replication which starts at the origin site and proceeds around the circular DNA to a specific site of termination
Mitosis
-cell division in which each daughter cell receives the same number of chromosomes (therefore the same genetic info) as the parent cell.
Meiosis
cell division in which each daughter cell receives 1/2 the # of chromosomes as the parent cell (one of each homologous pair)
somatic cell
body cell, diploid #
Gamete
sex cells-haploid #
role of mitosis
-multicellularity
-replacement of cells
-repair
-asexual reproduction
vegetative reproduction-in plants
Mitotic divisions-
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
-Interphase: G1-Gap1 (Growth)
S-synthesis (replication of DNA)
G2-Gap 2 (Growth)
-Prophase:centrioles split
nuclear envelope disappears
spindle apparatus forms
DNA condenses
Nucleolus disappears
-Metaphase:chromosomes align in center of cell along metaphase plate
-Anaphase:centromeres divide
sister chromatids move away from eachother & are pulled to opposite poles as attached microtubules shorten
-Telophase:spindle appartus disassembles and nuclear membrane begins to reform
histones
protein in which DNA wraps around (5)
nucleosome
-packaging unit of eukaryotic chromosomes
-a complex of DNA and histone proteins in which double-helical DNA winds around 8 molecules of histone:chromatin is composed of long sequences of nucleosomes
Karyokenesis
formation of 2 daughter nuclei
Cytokinesis
formation of cell plate
Phases of Meiosis I
Prophase:nuclear envelope breaks down, homologues pair in synapsis, crossing over occurs
-Metaphase:nuclear envelope has dispersed and microtubules form a spindle and each joined pair of homologues line up on metaphase plate
-Anaphase:chromosomes go towards poles
-Telophase: chromosomes have segregated into clusters at each pole and nuclear membran reforms around each daughter nucleus
Phases of Meiosis II
-resembles normal mitotic division except at the end, each of the 4 haploid cells contain only one set of chromosome instead of 2 sets.
Anaphase-seperation of sister chromatids
allele
gene variation for a trait
Mendel's laws
-Law of segregation:2 copies of genes get segregated during formation of sex cells
-Law of Dominance:dominant allele will show
-Law of independent assortment:genes located on nonhomologous chromosomes assort independently of one another
Monohybrid
cross of individuals heterozygous for one trait Pp x Pp
Genotype
genetic makeup
phenotype
-expression of genotype (what you see)
-ratio is 3:1
Homozygous
PP=homozygous dominant
pp=homozygous recessive
Heterozygous
2 different alleles- Pp
Dihybrid cross
each individual is heterozygous for 2 traits
Contradictions of Mendel
-Incomplete Dominance: the p generation and F1 will appear in F2 generation with a ration of 1:1:2. Crossed individuals homozygous whote and red and you get pink.
-codominance-no dominance, they are all expressed, no incomplete dominance-blood type
-multiple alleles