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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
In order for biological organisms to become fossilized, the bones and tissue of the organism must become _____.
When biological tissue such as a bone is covered by molten rock or embedded in silt and replaced by minerals, the resulting fossil is known as a _____ fossil.
When spiders or insects are trapped in the secretions of trees that turn to amber and fossilizes them, the resulting fossils are known as _____.
A method of determining the relative age of a fossil based on how deep it is within the sedimetnary rock layers of the earth's surface is known as _____.
A type of dating that determines the date of fossils by determining the ratio between parent elements and their decay products in the rock surrounding the fossil known as _____ dating.
A fossil that represents a particular time period is known as _____ fossil
In the Rocky Mountains of Canada there is an area that is unusually rich in fossils, known as the _____ _____.
Burgess Shale
Evidence suggests that the Burgess Shale was once a lime stone cliff located in the _____
sea or ocean
The fossils found in the Burgess Shale were dated to be roughly _____ years old.
550 million years
The Burgess Shale fossils are of organisms that lived in a geological period konwn as the _____ period.
During the Cambrian explosion, all of the current animal _____ _____ involved.
Body plans
The first multicellular organisms on Earth were _____.
Ancestral flatworms were the first organisms to develop a _____ body plan.
One hypothesis for the cause of the Cambrian explosion is that animals were able to evolve because a proper level of atmospheric _____ had been achieved.
The huge explosion in evolution of new body plans documented in the Burgess Shale is known as te _____ _____.
Cambrian explosion
How was the Burgess Shale formed and what does it contain?
The Burgess Shale was formed 550 million years ago when it was part of an ocean bottom. As organisms died they fell to the bottom of the ocean and were covered in sediment. As time progressed the animal bodies were fossilized and the sediment turned to rock. As mountains formed what once was an ocean bed was forced up to form a mountain range and within it were the fossilized remains of the organisms from 500 million years ago.
What are living fossils and what are two examples?
Living fossils are rare, living organisms that are the only living representatives of a group of organisms that became extinct millions of years ago. One example is the horseshoe crab which represents a group of extinct antrhopods. Another example is the coelancth, which is a representative of a group of extinct fish. Another possible example is the Ginkgo, which is the only living representative of an extinct group of trees.
What are living Lampsillis mussel and large mouth bass demonstrate an evolutionary arms race?
Lampsillis mussels have evolved a lure, which mimics the shape of smaller fish that large mouth bass prey upon. When the bass come close and try to eat the lure, the mussels spray their young into the bass's mouth so they can parasitize the gills. Over time, the bass learned to recognize the lure as being false. Mussels then evolved more convincing lures to once again outsmart the bass, an evolutionary arms race.
How have bats and moths evolved due to an evolutionary arms race?
Bats developed a method of sonar in order to locate moths while in flight. Over time, moths evolved an ear to hear the bat's sonar, and then learned to dive as the bat was getting close, thus avoiding predation. Bats then evolved very large ears that allowed them to hear the beat of moth wing so that they could stop using their sonar as they get close to the moths, thus preventing the moths from hearing them and diving out of the way.
How has an evolutionary arms race determined the abilities of the cheetah and gazelle?
Cheetas must be very fast in order to effectively catch gazelles. Gazelles are very fast in their own right, and much faster at changing direction than are cheetahs. As gazelles have become better and better at evading cheetahs, the cheetahs have had to become faster and faster in order to catch the gazelle. Over time, this evolutionary arms race has molded the cheetah and gazelle into the two fastest organisms on the African savannah.
List and briefly define the 5 types of fossils.
Replacement/compression fossils result from organisms being buried, allowing for minerals to replace the biological tissues.

Trace fossils are the fossilized remains of eggs, footprints and other biologial remains.

Resin fossils form when organisms such as insects get caught in the sap and secretions of trees known as amber. This amber then fossilizes , encasing the insect inside.

Living fossils are rare, living organisms that are the only living representatives of a group of organisms that became extinct millions of years ago.

Pseudo fossils are natural formations found in rocks that look alike, and can easily be confused with real fossils.