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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

oxidizing agent
lose eletrons

oxidizing agent accept electrons and become reduced
reduction and reducing agents
gain electrons

reducing agents: donate electrons and become oxidized
carrier e-s

two forms:
NAD+ and NADH + H+ (reduced_
glycolysis operates without O2 T/F

glycolysis works in presence or absense of O2
functions of glycolysis
1. almost universl central pathway of glucose catabolism (ex: bacteria, plants, ppl all same)

2. >er form C in pathway: most common degrad of C

3. some cells glucose only source metab E via glycolysis (for brain)

4. one of 1st meta pathwys evolved, is conserved

5. major diff involve pyruvic acid and methods regulation of pathway

7. finished in 1940
food glucose C-C -->

NAD (___) -->
food glucose C-C --> more oxi

NAD (oxi'd) --> NADH reduced

series of red oxi rxns --> VALUABLE ATP
1st couple of rxns of glycolysis ___
couple of rxns of glycolysis E consuming, glucose gets more E than before
[S] level phorylation
make ATP on spot, glycolysis
net E calculation: glycolysis
2 ATP in ------------= -2 ATP
2 NADH made-------= +4ATP
2 ATP made--------= +4ATP

= 6 ATP/gycolysis turn

every NADH --> 2 ATPs
for NADH to be used --> mitochondria
glycolysis process
glucose (atp -> ADP)--- glucose 6 Pi---frutcose 6 phosphate (atp -> ADP)---fructose 1,6 biPi

-----dihydroxyacetone phosphate
-----3 phosphoglyceraldehyde

----2 of the rest:
----3 phosphoglyceraldehyde (NAD+ --> NADH)----1,3 biPiglyceric Acid (ADP -> atp)----3 Phosphoglyceric glyceric Acid---2 Pi glyceric Acid---phosphoenolpyruvate (ATP -> adp)-----pyruvic acid
% E efficiency
6 ATP * 8,000 cal
--------------------- X 100
686,000 cal/mol

7% efficiency made available thru glycolysis

what happened to other 93%? NOT IN GLYCOLYSIS
phosphoenolpyruvate PEP

adp --> ATP
after fructose 1,6 biphosphate splits into 2,
after fructose 1,6 biphosphate splits into 2,
rest of them are 2 molecules

dihydroxyacetone phosphate
3 - phosphoglyceraldehyde
number in front

ex: 3 phosphoglyceraldehyde
= +ed C @ beta C (first carbon)


no O2-------- O2
ethanol---acetyl CoA
or lactic----////////
acid--------Krebs cycle
pyruvate process
pyruvate -- oxidation decaboxylation -- CoA -- pulls off carboxyl group (CO2) -- NAD -- NADH -- Acetyl CoA -- Ctiric acid cycle

-->es 6 ATP

40% efficiency 0=--> O2 makes HUGE difference
1 Kreb cycle = ___ ATPs
1 Kreb cycle = _12 ATPs
complete oxidation of glucose = __ ATP
complete oxidation of glucose = 36 ATP
pyruvate oxidation occurs in the ___ of the cell
pyruvate oxidation occurs in the mitochondria of the cell