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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
base pairing
the interaction between the nitrogen bases of 2 nucleotides on opposite strands of dna to create double stranded dna
chromosome
a more highly organized form of double stranded dna that uses proteins to compact a dna double helix
deoxyribose
the five carbon sugar ring that is a component of dna nucleotides, it has only an h at the 2 prime carbon as opposed to the oh found at the 2 prime of ribose
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid a polymer composed of nucleotide monomers that stores genetic information
DNA Polymerase
the protein enzyme whose function is to create new single strands of DNA by using the opposite strand of DNA single strand as a template
double helix
the term used to describe a double stranded dna molecule
genetic information
another term for the information which is stored within DNA
genome
a single copy of all of the genetic information in your cell also known as a complete set of chromosomes
helicase
the protein enzyme whose function is to unwind double stranded dna into two single strands
nitrogen base
a structure which is attached to the one prime carbon in a dna and rna nucleotide. dna nucleotides can have one of four different nitrogen bases
nucleotide
the monomer unit of a dna polymer it is composed of a five carbon ring a phosphate group and a nitrogen base
protein
a polymer made of amino acid monomers the are the functional form of information within the cell that carries out duties specified by the information enclosed in dna
phosphate group
found at the five prime carbon of a nucleotide they interact with the three prime carbon of another nucleotide to create single strands of dna
purines
nitrogen bases with two rings, adenine and guanine
pyrimidine
nitrogen bases with one ring cytosine and another thymine
replication
the process by which new dna is made using a single strand of dna as a template for the opposite strand of dna
ribose
the five carbon sugar ring that is a component of rna nucleotides it has an oh group at the two prime carbon as opposed to the h found at the two prime carbon of deoxyribose
rna
a polymer made up of nucleotide monomers mRNA is messenger rna which transports copies of dna information to other locations in the cell
semi conservative replication
process of dna replication where one double stranded dna makes two new ones each consisting of half old and half new
cytoskeleton
the scaffolding or skeleton made from proteins found within the cytoplasm of a cell
deletion
a type of mutation where nuleotides are missing from the dna sequence
disease
an impairment of the nowmal state of the living animal or one of its parts that interrupts or modifies the performance of the vital functions, typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms
dmd gene
the gene that encodes the protein dystrophin
dystrophin
a protein associated with a protein complex important for the strength of skeletal muscle cells and is absent or mutated in duchenne muscular dystrophy
frameshift
a mutation caused by insertions or deletions of a number of nucleotides that is not evenly divisible by three from a dna sequence. Due to the triplet nature of gene expression by codons, the insertion or deletion can disrupt the reading frame, or grouping of the codons, resulting in a completely different translation from the original
helicase
the protein enzyme whose function is to unwind double stranded dna into two single strands
insertion
the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a genetic sequence (DNA)
mutation
changes of the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material (DNA) of an organism
promoter
a portion of a gene, a promoter is a dna sequence found before the series of codons that make up a gene
rna polymerase
the protein enzyme that creates an mRNA from the template strand of DNA
transcription
the process of creating an mRNA from dna using the protein enzyme rna polymerase
translation
the process by which the ribosome uses tRNAs to make a protein from an mRNA by translating the nucleotide codons into amino acids
WRN gene
the gene that encodes the Werner helicase protein which plays a role in DNA replication and is mutated in Werner syndrome
AUG start codon
the first three nucleotides or codon of any gene, this codon helps indicate where the ribosome should begin translating RNA into a protein
amino acids
monomers which are used to make up protein polymers, the amino acid sequence of a protein is encoded in dna
anti-codon
the three base sequence in tRNA complementary to a codon on mRNA
coding strand
the single strand within a dna double helix that contains the nucleotide codons in the correct order to be read, this dna strand has the same sequence as the transcribed mRNA (given U in rna and T in dna)
codon
words of the dna/rna language, sets of three nucleotides that code for a particular amino acid
cytoplasm
the major volume of the cell outside of the nucleus which contains all other organelles including ribosomes
gene
a series of codons within a dna sequence also includes regulatory regions of dna such as a promoter
genetic code
sets of three nucleotides that specify amino acids or stop codons during the process of translation at the ribosome, the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (dna or rna sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences)
gene expression
the process by which information from a gene (DNA) is made into a functional gene product (protein) using mRNA
messenger RNA
a molecule of rna encoding a chemical blueprint for a protein product, mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template and carries coding information from the nucleus to the sites of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm, the ribosomes
non coding strand
the dna strand that forms the template for the transcribed mRNAm this strand is the opposite of the coding strand
nucleus
the organelle in a cell, which contains the cell's chromosomal DNA. Transcription of mRNA from DNA occurs in the nucleus
open reading frame
a sequence of nucleotide codons from start to stop that encode one protein
ribosome
cellular organelle where proteins are translated from mRNA
stop codon
nucleotide codon that signals the end of an open reading frame and causes the termination of transcription because there is no tRNA with the corresponding anti-codon
transfer RNA
a small rna that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation
uracil
nitrogen base with one ring that is found in RNAs instead of thymine
cell cycle
a process of cell division, allowing the duplication of cells
kinases (phosphotransferase)
a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific target molecules (substrates); the process is termed phosphorylation
chromatin
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes
histones
the chief protein components of chromatin that act as spools around which dna winds and they play a role in gene regulation
nucleosomes
from the fundamental repeating units of eukaryotic chromatin
prophase
stage of mitosis in which chromatin condenses into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome
prometaphase
the phase of mitosis following prophase and preceding metaphase in eukaryotic somatic cells
metaphase
the stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which the condensed chromosomes carrying genetic information align in the middle of the cell before being separated into two daughter cells
anaphase
the stage of mitosis when chromosomes separate in a eukaryotic cell
telophase
a stage in either meiosis or mitosis in a eukaryotic cell reversing the effects of prophase and prometaphase
gamate
a mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism
cancer
a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
oncogenes
genes that promote cancer and code for proteins that promote cell growth and division
proto-oncogenes
normal version of an oncogene
tumor suppressor genes
genes that protect against cancer and code for proteins that stop or regulate cell growth and division
apoptosis
programmed cell death
metastasis
the process in which cancer cells break away from the original tumor mass and establish new tumor sites elsewhere in the body
risk factors
behaviors or substances that increase the chances that a person will develop cancer
benign tumor
a noncancerous mass of cells that does not spread to other parts of the body
malignant tumor
a mass of cancer cells that may invade surrounding tissues or spread to distant areas of the body
carcinogenesis
the process by which cancer develops
chromosome
a structure of dna and protein found in the cell nucleus. each chromosome contains hundreds of thousands of genes
allele
one of the variant forms of a gene at a particular locus, or location, on a chromosome
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a given gene
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a given gene
epigenetic inheritance
inheritance of a molecular modification of dna (methylation or chromatin structure) that affects gene expression
splicing
the removal of introns and joining of exons to form a continuous coding sequence of dna
transcription factors
proteins in eukaryotes that regulate the transcription of other genes by binding to regulatory sequences of the gene
genotype
the inherited genetic code of an organism for a specific trait
phenotype
the observable characteristics of an individual which result from expression of that organism's genes, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties or behavior
diploid
containing two copies of each chromosome
haploid
having one copy of each chromosome, gametes are haploid cells
dna methylation
an endogenous process in the cell which adds a methyl group, -CH3, to dna, resulting in gene silencing or failure of the gene to become expressed
chromatin
the organization and dense packaging of dna in the nucleus of cells
evolution
the process of change in the inherited traits of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. genes that are passed on to an organism's offspring produce the inherited traits that are the basis of evolution
charles darwin
realized and demonstrated that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process called natural selection
natural selection
the process by which favorable heritable traits become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable heritable traits become less common, due to reproduction of genotypes enabling them to adapt to environmental pressures, predators, changes in climate, competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind
fossil
the preserved remains of an organism from a remote past
paleontologist
a scientist who studies prehistoric life forms
radioactive clock
the age of any fossil can be measured if the geological stratum where it was found is known
fossil record
the totality of fossils with their placement in rock formations and sedimentary layers
homologies
if all life forms on earth share a common ancestor, then evolution predicts that related organisms will share similar characteristics
analogous
the relations between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not necessarily, a similarity
continental drift
the movement of the earth's continents relative to each other
genes
the basic units of heredity in a living organism
human genome project
an international scientific research project with a primary goal to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up dna and identify the approx. 25,000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint
phylogeny
the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (i.e. species, population)
speciation
the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise
clades
a taxonomic group comprising a single common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor
homologous characters
any similarity between characters that is due to their shared ancestry
taxa
a name designating an organism or a group of organisms
variation
the uniqueness of every individual and a characteristic of every sexually reproducing species
species
the major subdivision of a genus or subgenus, regarded as the basic category of biological classification, composed of related individuals that resemble one another, are able to breed among themselves, but are not able to breed with members of another species
population
a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time
heritable
the proportion of phenotypic variation in a population that is attributable to genetic variation among individuals
gene flow
the alteration of the frequencies of alleles of particular genes in a population, resulting from interbreeding with organisms from another population having different frequencies
bottleneck effect
a significant reduction in the size of a population due to a random event such as a natural disaster
genetic drift
random changes in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool, usually of small populations
founder effect
when a small subset of a population splits off and starts a new population in a new location
germ line mutations
any detectable and heritable variation in the lineage of germ cells
fitness
the genetic contribution of an individual to the next generation's gene pool, usually measured by the number of offspring or close kin that survive to reproductive age
adaption
any alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any parts that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fitted to survive and multiply in its environment
speciation
the formation of new species as a result of geographic, physiological, anatomical, or behavioral factors that prevent previously interbreeding, populations from breeding with each other, allopatric, peripatric, parapatric, and sympatric
sexual selection
the theory proposed by Darwin that states that certain evolutionary traits can be explained by intraspecific competition
artificial selection
a process in the breeding of animals and in the cultivation of plants by which the breeder chooses to perpetuate only those forms having certain desirable characteristics
sickle cell anemia
a blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape
malaria
a vector bone infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites
mimicry
occurs when a group of organisms have evolved to share common perceived characteristics with another group, the models, through the selective action of a signal receiver or dupe
vestigal structure
features that apparently serve no function in an organism and are allegedly holdovers from an evoultionary past
niche
the function or position of a species within an ecological community. A species' niche includes the physical environment to which it has become adapted as well as its role as producer and consumer of food sources
coevolution
the change of a biological object triggered by the change of a related object, predator/prey, parasite/host, competitive species, and mutalistic species
microevolution
evolutionary change involving the gradual accumulation of mutations leading to new varieties within a species
macroevolution
a scale of analysis of evolution in separated gene pools
extinction
the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa