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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When is a chromosome duplicated?
when it is about to divide
What are chromosomes made of?
coils of DNA in a protein covering
What are non-reproductive cells called?
somatic cells
How many chromosomes do all sex cells contain?
23
How many chromatids are in one pair of chromosomes?
4
On average, how long is interphase?
19 hours
Why are cancer cells in interphase for a shorter time?
They reproduce rapidly
What is the first stage of mitosis?
Prophase
What happens in prophase?
chromosomes form
What is a homologous chromosome?
a chromosome found in pairs
What is unique about a diploid?
there will be 2 sets of coding in the nucleus
What are centrioles made of?
spindle fibers
What phase is after prophase?
Metaphase
What happens during anaphase?
centrioles split and chromatids become daughter chromosomes
What happens during telophase?
new nuclear membranes begin to form and final split of cytoplasm occurs
What is the final split of the cytoplasm called?
cytokinesis
What are characteristics of a somatic cell?
diploid cell, mitosis production, excludes gametes
What are the characteristics of a gamete?
haploid cell, meiosis production, sex cells
How are X and Y chromosomes exceptions to the general pattern of homologous chromosomes?
they are not identical because one is from the mother and one from the father
How is a diploid cell different from a haploid cell?
2 nuclei, 2 chromosomes, somatic
How does a zygote form?
2 haploid cells (sperm and ovum) fuse together to form a diploid cell with a full set of chromosomes
In the central dogma of biology DNA to DNA is...
Replication (copying)
In the central dogma of biology DNA to RNA is...
transcription
In the central dogma of biology RNA to protein is...
translation
What type of cells to gametes form from?
germ cells
What is prokaryotic fission?
the basis of asexual reproduction in archaea and bacteria only
What is the constriction where the sister chromatids attach?
centromere
What is a centrosome?
a site where microtubules originate
In which phase are duplicated chromosomes aligned midway between the spindle poles?
metaphase
What is the mechanism that pinches the cytoplasm in two?
cleavage
When does cytokinesis usually occur?
late anaphase - late telophase