Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/25

Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Energy
makes matter do things
2 states of energy
Potential:stored energy
Kinetic energy:released energy (motion/work)
Forms of energy
-radiant:wave motion(kinetic), electromagnetic spectrum,gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays, visible light, sound waves
-chemical (bond) energy inherit between the bonds of atoms>potential
-electrical:flow of charge
-nuclear (atomic:energy stored in atomic nuclei
Gibbs free energy
available to do work
Laws of thermodynamics
-energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Amount of universal energy remains constant
-energy tends to go towards randomness
organized->random
potential->kinetic
competitive inhibition
compete with substrate for same active site, displacing a percentage of substrate molecules from the enzymes, noncompetitive inibitors bind to the enzyme in a location other than the active site, changing the shape of the enzyme and making it unable to bind to the substrate.
allosteric inhibition
a substance binds to an allosteric site and reduces enzyme activity
coenzymes
organic molecule works with an enzyme electron transfer
ex:NADP,NAD,FAD
cofactor
activates enzymes-electrolytes-inorganic
oxidation
loss of electons, exergonic, spontaneous (often accompanied by H+)
reduction
gaining of electrons, higher energy state
Photosynthesis
6CO2+6H2O->C6H12O6 + 6O2
Light reaction in photosynthesis
-occurs in thylakoid
-photolysis-H2O->2e- + 2H+ +1/2O2
-NADP->NADPH (12)
-ATP Synthase->ATP (18)
-only possible b/c of organization in membrane
photolysis
splitting of water
products of light reaction
NADPH and ATP
chemiosmosis
ability of membrane to seperate charge and couple to make ATP, oxidation-reduction
Calvin cycle in photosynthesis
-independant of light
-occurs in stroma
-ribulose bi-phosphate is starting point
-rubisco is enzyme
-G3P is product
ribulose bi-phosphate
most important enzyme that exists because it fixes CO2 into organic molecules
cellular respiration
C6H12O6+ 6O2->6CO2 + 6H2O
-glycolysis
-intermediate
-krebs cycle
-electron transport chain
Glycolysis
-occurs in cytosol
-glucose(6C)->2G3P->2 pyruvates
-2NAD->2NADH
-2 ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)
substrate level phosphorylation
making ATP from phosphates
products of glycolysis
2 pyruvates, 2 NADH, 2 ATP
Intermediate step
-occurs on inner membrane of mitochondria
-2 pyruvate->acetate
-2NAD->2NADH
-2 CO2 diffuse out of the cell
Krebs cycle
-occurs in matrix of mitochondria
-4 CO2
-2 ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)
-6 NADH, 2FAD.2H
electron transport chain
-occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria
-for every 2 electrons that enter ETC from NADH->3ATP.
-For every 2 electrons that enter ETC from FAD.2H->2ATP