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35 Cards in this Set

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3 Alleles for blood type
I-A I-B i
Co-Dominance
Two different alleles are expressed equally in heterzygote
Incomplete Dominance
Heterozygote genotype yields an intermediate phenotype relative to the homozygous genotypes
Epistasis
One gene's expression dtermines the expression of another
Penetrence
Proportion of individuals with a genotype for a trait that actually express the phenotype
Polydactyly
Extra fingers or toes
Dominant autosomal
Variably Expressed
Huntington Disease
Non-variably expressed
Little variation to phenotype
Neurodegeneration
5-15 years diagnosed death
Expressivity
Range of severity for those affected individuals
Pleiotropy
Alteration in one single gene yields many seemingly unrelated symptoms
Porphyria Variegata
Severe reduction in enzyme to convert porphyrin into heme
Heme
Blood Pigment
Genetic Heterogeneity
Different genes produce the same phenotype
Mitochondrial Inheritance
37 genes encoded by mitochondrial chromosome
Only mother passes the trait on to her children
Polygenic
More than one gene per trait
Loci
Chromosomal Location
Discontinuous Variance
2 distinct phenotypes
Multifactorial Traits
Polygenic components and environmental factors influence phenotype
Environmental Factors
Non-genetic
Heritability
The proportion of the phenotype that is due to a genotype
Concordance
Percent of pairs in which both twins express the trait
Sex-influenced expression
Dominant in one sex, recessive in the other
Sex-limited expression
Effect is seen in only one sex
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
Male
Cause change to external genetalia
Teste formation
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
XX with female internal organs
Masulinized external organs
Enlarged clitoris
Increase in androgen
Pseudohermaphroditic
XY
No internal female or male organs excpet testes
Externally female phenotype
Completely sterile
Sex-linkage
Genes are "linked" (locus is on) the sex chromosome (either X or Y)
Y-linked genes
Approximatly 40-50 genes on Y chromosome
A few of these genes are shared with the X chromosome
X-linked genes
Approximatly 1100 genes on X chromosome
Females-XX
Male-XY
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
X-linked
Bad muscle problems
Hemophilia A & (B)
X-linked
Inability to clot blood
Color-blindness
X-linked
Red-green color blindness
Hypophosphatemia
X-linked
Low phosphates
Mimics vitamin D deficiency disease (rickets)
Congenital generalized hypertrichosis
X-linked
More hair than normal all over body
Warewolf Syndrome
Incontinentia Pigmenti
X-linked
X-IPX eye defects, skin defects
X-IPX-IP does't exist
X-IPY doesn't exist
Dosage Compensation
Inactivate 1 or the x chromosomes in the female cell