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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the components of a nucleus?
nuclear envelope
What is contained in the nucleolus?
protiens and genes for ribosomal RNA to make ribosomes
Explain chromasomes v. chromatin
Chromatin: stringy genetic material stretched out in the cell. When cell splits, the chromatin condense and become Chromasomes
What happens in the Endomembrane system
lipids are assembles and polypeptide chains are modified
products are sorted out and shipped
What are the three components of the Endomembrane system?
1. ER
2. golgi
3. vesicles
Why is the Rough ER "rough"?
dotted with ribosomes on outside
What happens in the rough er?
polypeptide chains enter and are modified

protien synthesis happens here and produces energy
Do some ribosomes occur free of the ER?
what happens in the smooth er?
lipids are assembled

makes lipid molecules that become part of the cell membranes
what do the golgis do?
put polypeptide chains together intro protiens
package them for shipment
arrvies and leaves the golgi in vessicles
where is a lysosome manufactured?
in the golgi
what what do lysosomes do?
they break down stuff and recycle it in the cell (ex: eating a tadpole tail)
What is the main purpose of the mitochondria?
energy transformation, ATP producing powerhouses,
How many membranes do mitochondria have?
two of opposite charges
What do chloroplasts do?
convert sun energy to chemical energy
What is the structure of a chloroplast like?
two outer membranes around semifluid interior (stroma)
series of stacked, flattened disks (thylakoid)
What is diffusion?
net movement of like molecules or ions DOWN their concentration gradient, no energy output
active transport
from one side of the cell to the other against concentration gradient, requires energy
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane toa region where water concentration is lower
hypotonic solution
is the solution with fewer solutes
hyerpertonic solution
the solution with MORE solutes
isotomic solutions
do not show osmotic movement
do both plants and animals have mitochondria?
can energy and matter be "converted"?
NO, only broken down and reassembled and stuff