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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 6 characteristics of life?
- produce energy
-consume energy
- ability to reproduce
The Three Domains of Life
and the 4 Kingdoms i Domain Eukarya
Domains-Domain Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Kingdoms- Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
The 4 kingdoms description
Protista- unicellular,very complex
Plantae- plants, multicellular, photosynthsis
Fungi-some multicellular, NOphotosynthsis, Decomposers
Animalia- animals, Eukaryotic, Multicellular
Discovery Science
verifiable observations and measurments-describe life in a variety of ways
-physical characteristics (using our sences)
-observing behavior
Scientific Method
formal process of inquiry- series of steps. beings with OBSERVATIONS(discovery science)
-formulate hypothesis
Scientific Fact
an observation that has been repeated, confirmed and for all practical purposes is accepted as "true"
Experiment to test Hypothesis
it has to be potentially falsifiable
-often a controlled experiement
-only one variable changed in ea. of the experimental groups
but not always- bc of ethical and pratical reasons
Scientific Law
descriptions of patterns of regularity with respect to natural phenomenon
ex- law of gravity
Scientific Theory
a well substaniated explanation of some aspect of the natural that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypothesis
*in science, theroies have the most weight
What does it mean by science is not "set in stone"
understandings can change as we learn more
sciencce can change
the body and mind change throughout time and becomes more complex- science adjusts to this!
corrleation and causation
correlation- an apparent relationship b/t variables
causation- an established relationship b/t variables
ex- vioxx- this is arthritis medication that also increases risk of heartattacks and strokes
correlation- statistical analysis showing relationship
causation- experiment to determine what, if anthing in vioxx causes this increase
the entire system in an area
all living organisms
-plants, incests, mammals, mushrooms
all non living organisms
The abiotic factors are of primary importance in determining what plants and animals can live in a area
The 6 abioticfactors
1. water
2. sunlight-solar energy for photosynthesis
3. temp
6.periodic distrubances- fires, hurricans etc
all biological community is all the organisms living close enough together for potential interaction
a group of indviduals of a single species that occupy the same general area
ex- all the maple trees in UD
Preditor/prey relationships
preditor- consumer
prey- the food
two ways to look at this relationship
1. food chains
2. food webs
Food Chains
shows how energy moves through a system, up the chain
1- herbivores- eat plants
2-carnivores- eat animals
3-omnivorves- eat both
4-detritivores- decomposers eat dead material from both
producers/ consumers
producers-photosynthetic- uses energy from the sun to store energy in chemical bonds of sugar- bottom of food chain
consumers- obtain their energy from the food they eat
food web
shows how the energy moves in the complexity of a real life situation
-network of interconnecting food chains
-most species eat moer than just one thing
How a plant gets its male sperm (carried by the pollen) to the female parts (stigma and ovary) of another plant of the same species
Options: Abiotic (non-living) Wind, water
Biotic (living) Animals insects, mammals
seed dispersal
How plants get their seeds spread, so they don’t land below the parent plant
Abiotic - wind and water
Biotic – Animals (ex. Mammals, birds)
symbiotic relationshis
interactions in which one organism lives with another in an intimate association Usually in or on the another

Two types:
Mutualism and Parasitism
relationship where both partners benefit
ex- acacia tree and ants
tree provides hollow thorns where ants live, along with providing sugar and protein
-ants protect tree by attacking anything that touches it
one organism (parasitic) benefits at the expense of the other (host)
ex- rabbits over populated in australlia- controlled it by a virus- killed off- helps other animals population so they have food.
Four elements that make up 96% of our body weight and are basic for life and the 5th element needed in molecules of life
1- oxygen 65%
2- carbon 18.5%
3- hydrogen 9.5%
4- nitrogen 3.3%
**5- phosphorus 1%
Four molecules of life
1.carbs o,h,c
2. lipids-fats- o,h,c
3. protiens- o,h,c, and nitrogen
4. nucleic acids-dna- o,h,c,n, and phosphorus
in nucleus
-1 unit of positive charge
in nucleus
-no charge
revlove around nucleus
- negitive charge
*Electrons revolve around the nucleus in shells
-Shells are energy levels
-shell closest to nucleus can hold 2 electrons
-All the other shells can hold 8 electrons
-The number of electrons in outermost shell determines how the atom reacts with other atoms and molecules
Atomic number
this number is the number of protons it determins what the element is
115 elements made up of atoms with different numbers of protons in their nucleus
forms of an element that differ in mass
Raidoactive isotopes
the nucleus decays, giving ofles and energy
-living cells cannot distinguish between raidoactive and non raidoactive elements so they take them up and use them as normal. once taken, RI can be detected bc of the radiation they emit. THis makes them useful as tracers
Why Raidoactive isotopes are bad
Uncontrolled exposure to them can harm living things by damanging cellular molecules- especailly DNA. Develop cancer.
types of bonds
1- ionic- from from ionic compounds
ions- atoms/molecules with a positive or negitive charge- attractis b/t ions with opposite charge.
transfer one electrion of an incomplete outershell, to another incomplete outer shell- this transfer makes both outershells complete
2. covalent- occurs when two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons. Atoms that are held together by a covalent bond form a molecule.
hydrogen bonds
a weak chemical bond
- formed when the partially positive hydrogen atom participating in a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the partially negitive atom participating in a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
Polar Molecule
water is held together by covalent bonds
-a polar molecule is the unequal sharing of negatively charged electrions combined with its V shape
-within the molecule, the oxygen atom pulls the electrons much more strongly than the hydrogen atoms so the electorns spend more time around the O nucleus than around the H nucleus.
4 unique Qualities of Water
1.water is cohesive
-hydrogen bonds cause water molecules to stick together and pull eachother along.Ex. In trees: nWater is transported to the top leaves of very tall trees (against gravity) because the molecules pull each other up the microscopic tubes
4 unique qualities of water
1- cont. surface tension- the measure of how difficult it is to strech or break the surgace of a liquid. the more water molecules are lined up and bonded together, the harder it is. ex. belly smackers
2- Ice is less dense than liquid water
- water freezes hydrogen bonds from b/t 100% of the molecules. It pushes the molecues apart- more space b/t molecules
-forms a lattice-like structure and Become less dense and thus lighter than liquid water
This is odd bc Most substances become more dense as they cool and become heavier- not like this for water
4 unique qualities of water cont.
3. water moderates temp.
-water is able to absord and release much heat energy with little change in its temp.
-water heats up slowly, water cools the opposite happens- water cools down slowly
costal reigins- water cools temp slowly so animals have time to adjust
also- prespiring- evaportaion of water causes cooling
4. water is an universial solvent
-many things dissolve in water
-very impt. in our bodies
-why we are mostly water
- materials can easily move
acid and bases
in water solutions most water molecules stay intact. nHowever, some do break apart into ions.
-Acids = chemical that increase the concentration (relative number) of H+ ions nThe more H+ ions, the stronger the acid nEx. Hydrochloric acid in our stomachs • nBases = chemical bind to H+ ions, thus decreasing the concentration of H+ ions (leaving behind OH- ions) nThe more OH- ions, the stronger the base
pH scale
each pH unit represents a 10-fold change in concentration
lemon juice is 10 times acidic than vingar
- in pure water these are equal or neutral
-strong acids or bases can damange our tissue
- biological range = pH 6.5-8.2
Acid Rain
rain snow or fog that has a pH below 5.6
Ex. Rain with pH of 2-3, more acidic than vinegar, has been recorded in the eastern US Ex. Acid fog of pH 1.7, near as strong as stomach acid, has been recorded downwind of Los Angeles
acid rain/precipatation cont
Acid Precipitation is caused by sulfur and nitrogen oxides, mostly from burning fossil fuels nCoal, oil and gasoline in factories, automobiles and trucks. Electric power plants that burn coal produce more of these pollutants than any other source