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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biology is...
the science of life
cellular organization
cell theory
- all organisms consist of one or more cells. (cell is the basic unit of life). Cell theory states this
sensitivity (aka ittitability)
all organisms respond to stimuli
an organism will stay the same internally, even if the environment may change
scientific method (definition)
an approach to uncover truth by using systematic reasoning
scientific method (two different types of reason)
inductive and deductive
inductive reasoning
tying observations together by using hypothesis
deductive reasoning
taking generalizations and making specific predictions about them.
atomic mass
protons + neutrons
atoms of same element, but with a different number of neutrons (same # of protons, same atomic #, different mass)
radioactive isotope. unstable nucleus
takes up more electrons (more negative charge)
loses electron
(more positive charge)
the ability of an atom to attract an electron during a chemical reaction
4 types of chemical bonds:
ionic bonds
polar covalent
covalent bonds
even sharing of electron pairs
polar covalent bonding
sharing of electrons is uneven.
hydrogen bonding
a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
ionic bonding
involves atoms with different electronegativity and involves a complete electron transfer
different properties of water
surface tension
wetting capacity
capillary action
high surface heat
high heat of vaporization
heat of fusion
ability to act as a solvent
surface tension
the attraction of one water molecule to another that results in COHESION. (way a bug can walk on water)
wetting capacity
when water molecules become attracted to other charged particles.
two oppositely charged different molecules are attracted to one another
capillary action
result of cohesion and adhesion... meaning the movement of water through small pores.
the swelling due to the uptake of water
high specific heat
the amount of heat a certain amount of substance required for a given increase in temp.
high heat of vaporization
more energy is required to change phases. for water -- 586 calories
heat of fusion
freezing water that gives off heat energy. (like spraying plants with water when it freezes outside)
substances that dissolve in water
hydration shell
ions attracted to water. they form a hydration shell that is a layer of water that surrounds the ions
a molecule is immisicible with water, meaning it doesn't mix with water
PH scale
PH 1 = very acidic
pH 7 = neutral (water)
pH 14 = very basic
carbon skeletons
large sequences of bonded carbon molecules
7 functional groups
a. aldehyde
5. methyl
6. phosphate
7. sulfhydryl
the alcohol group
the acid group and makes an organic molecule acidic and water soluble
AMINO group
gives a solution basic properties
has oxygen and carbon doubly bonded.
a. aldehyde - terminal carbon doubly bonded to oxygen. water soluble and polar.
b. keyton - one internal carbonds doubly bonded to an oxygen ion instead of terminally bonded. water soluble and polar
METHYL group
nothing but carbon and hydrogen bonded together. water insoluble b/c electronegativity of H and O are almost identical. regular covalent bonds (not polar)
acts like a weak acid and is water soluble. tends to give off two hydrogens
sulfur and hydrogen bonded together
delta H
amt of heat change during a reaction
the principle energy source in most organisms. also involved in cell structure
simple sugar aka monosaccharide
classifying a simple sugar
# of carbons:
3 carbons is triose
4 tetrose
5 pentose
6 hexose
two monosaccarhides bonded together by a glycosidic linkage
glycosidic linkage
links the monosaccharide to make a disaccharide
structural isomers
have the same molecular formula but a differenct structure
associated with food storage in plants
associated with food storage in animals
(polysaccharide) takes part in structural cell function and consists of glucose
condensation or dehydration
the removal of water that is needed to combine two monosaccharides. (reverse: hydrolysis)
glucose - alpha and beta form
ALPHA - hooks glucose atoms together to make glycogen. BETA makes cellulose that cant be digested by humans.
exoskeleton (cellular) or chitin
polysaccharide that serves as a structural function
hydrophobic. structural. more reduced b/c more H bonds. store energy. humans prefer glycogen over lipids
essential fatty acid
acids that humans can't produce in their body, required in diet.
saturated fat
single bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms. solid at room temp. (fat)
unsaturated fat
doubly bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms. liquid at room temp. (oil)
subcutaneous fat
fat under the skin that serves as instillation (involves idea of homeostasis)
type of liquid that occurs when triglycerides are midding a fatty acid group
another type of lipid. cholesterol makes sex hormones and bile acids
examples of steroids
testosterone, estradiol.
linear sequences of amino acids
proteins main functions:
1. enzymes are 99.9% of proteins. catalysts speed up chemical reactions and control different reactions
2. DEFENSE: proteins protect from viruses and bacteria. antibodies detect foreign objects in the body.
3. TRANSPORT: they move hemoglobin that carries oxygen to cells though the bloodstream.
4. support (structure): hair, elastic skin
5. MOTILITY: allow muscles to contract
7. STORAGE: protein stores iron and calcium
dipeptide bond
tripeptide bond
polypeptide chain
- 2 amino acids hooked together
- 3 hooked together
- lots of amino acids together
primary structure of a protein
linear sequence of amino acids. Ones primary structure forms, a higher secondary structure will form
chaperone proteins
help other proteins fold up if they cant on their own
a denatured protein
a protein that has changed its shape. 3 factors:
1. temp change
2. change in pH
3. change in salt concentration