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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the secretory pathway for a secreted protein?
Rough ER => Golgi => Secretory Vesicle
(T/F) Endocytosis does not bring newly synthesized proteins into the lysosome.
(T/F) Pepsin's activity is not optimized for acidic environments.
False; pepsin's activity IS optimized in the stomach's acidic environment.
(T/F) Trypsin and pancreatic lipase are both secreted enzymes that function in the small intestine, not an acidic environment.
What is the signal that a protein that is destined for the lysosome?
What organelle(s) is M6P involved in targetting?
ONLY lysosomes.
What does the interior of the ER (the lumen) correpond to?
- interior of the Golgi
- interior of secretory vesicles
- extracellular environment in turn
(T/F) CO2 and oxygen passively diffuse through membranes (such as the placenta).
True; in the placenta, fetal plasma CO2 must be higher than the maternal circulation in the placenta forcing CO2 to move down the gradient from the fetal circulation into the maternal circulation.
How has fetal hemoglobin adapted?
It binds oxygen more avidly than adult hemoglobin, to provide sufficient oxygen to fetal tissues under these reduced oxygen conditions.
(T/F) Maternal blood must supply oxygen to maternal tissues before reacching the placenta.
Where does blood mix in the fetus?
between teh pulmonary artery and the aorta through the ductus arterisus.
(T/F) In the fetus, both ventricles pump blood to the system circulation.
Main function of large intestine
reabsorption of salt and water from forming feces; they are designed for inward movement of water.
(T/F) Epithelium of the stomach and the skin play protective roles and are relatively impermeable.
Epithelial cells of the capillaries are likely to experience water flow only in one direction.
FALSE; they are likely to experience water flow out of, as well as back into, the plasma and are not adapted for water flow in one direction or another.
(T/F) Schwann cells are supportive of neurons, insulating them, but they don't convey APs to a neuron.
(T/F) Sodium travels through the myelin sheath.
Centrioles are what?
microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) responsible for spindle formation in mitosis and meiosis.
(T/F) Second messengers carry hormone signals inside the cell but are not themselves hormones.
(T/F) Neurotransmitters are charged molecules that work at the cell surface.
(T/F) Lysosomes and peroxisomes are separate distinations that proteins can be targeted to but are not in the secretory path leading to the cellular exterior.
What do ribosomes synthesize?
- process by which the cell internalizes receptor-ligand complexes from the cell surface, such as polypeptide hormones bound to their receptor.
- At the cell surface, the receptor-ligand complexes cluster in clathrin-coated pits and pinch off the vesicles that join acidic copmartments known as endosomes.
The tRNA moelcules only interacts with the mRNA codon (before/after) mRNA is bound to the ribosome.
(T/F) If something is an isomers, it has to have different atomic composition.
FALSE: it has to have the same atomic composition.
(T/F) NADPH can be used to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation.
NADH is used to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. NADPH cannot be used.
What are microfilaments?
fibrous polymers of the globular protein actin, which are essential for: amoeboid motility cell-cell adhesion contractile processes
What are microtubules?
- hollow tubes composed of tubulin alpha-beta heterodimers and are the largest of the three cytoskeletal structures. - they function during mitosis in: cell structure movement of cilia and flagella transportation of organelles sister chromatid separation
Does metaphase require microtubules?
yes, for sister chromatid separation so if the cycle has already progressed past this stage, the drug will not effect microtubules.
Microfilaments are required for ...
amoeboid motility contraction processes such as contraction of the cleavage furrow to copmlete cytokinesis.
What stage does the cleavage furrow form?
during telophase/cytokinesis, not anaphase... microfilaments are responsible for this.
(T/F) Microfilaments are composed of actin and are found in the cytoplasm as part of the cytoskeleton.
Are eukaryotic flagella structurally identical to prokaryotic flagella?
NO; - Prokaryote flagella: formed from chains of a protein called flagellin and are attached to the cell surface (as opposed to being cytoplasmic extensions). - Eukaryotic flagella: they are cytoplasmic extensions with a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules.
(T/F) Eukaryotic flagella are similar in structure to cilia.
(T/F) For eukarytoic falgella, ATP hydrolysis is requried for their movement.
(T/F) The centromores don't split until early anaphase, when they prepare to move towards the opposite poles of the spindle.
(T/F) Erythrocytes are nucleated and terminally differentiated.
FALSE; they lack a nucleus in humans and are terminally differentiated! They are incapable of mitosis and must be continually replenished by stem cells in the marrow.
(T/F) A drug that blocks the passage of potassium ions through potassium leak channels would making teh resting MP become positive in the cellular interior relative to the extracellular environment.
FALSE; it will not make the cellular interior positive since doing so would require net movement of positive ions into the cell which is not what happens.
Basic amino acids are positively are negatively charged?
Positively charged and hydrophobic... they are found on the exterior of proteins in aqueous environments.
Where is teh ATPase activity for Na/K ATPase?
it will be on the interior of the vesicle since it will reside on the cytoplasmic side of the Na/K ATPase.
(T/F) Enzyme catalyzed reactions can often be driven backward if the concentration ofproduct is greater than at equilibrium, making delta(G) favor the back reaction rather than the forward reaction.
What conditions must there be theoretically to result in ATP production from Na/K ATPase rather than ATP hydrolysis?
- increased K in the interior and increase Na in the exterior of the vesicle, with ADP and Pi high both inside and outside of the vesicle.
- this is based on: Enzyme catalyzed reactions can often be driven backward if the concentration ofproduct is greater than at equilibrium, making delta(G) favor the back reaction rather than the forward reaction.
Are equilibrium and delta(G) related functions?
YES; if delta(G) is negative, then the reaction will move forward toward equilibrium spontaneously.
What happens when you couple ATP hydrolysis to a reaction?
it alters the overall delta(G) and will also change the equilibrium.,
(T/F) Osmosis is the flow of WATER to equalize a difference in solute concentration, not the net movement of solute across a membrane.
(T/F) Cancer cells may lose their ability to respond to hormonal control, but some cancers retain their ability (e.g. breast cancers, which are treated with hormone therapy).
Where is the jelly coat in relation to the vitelline layer?
The jelly coat is the layer just outside the vitelline layer.
(T/F) In fertilization, the acrosomal reaction allows the sperm to penetrate teh jelly coat to reach the vitelline layer, in which the bindin receptors are located.
Where are cortical granules located?
- inside the plasma membrane of the egg;
- substances from the cortical granules degrade the bindin receptors.
What is ther perivitelline space?
its the space btw the plasma membrane and the vitelline layer.
Primary oocytes are arrested for years at what phase is meiosis?
meiotic prophase I;
they are arrested for years from birth until ovulation here.
(T/F) Calcium influx results from the sodium influx, and this calcium influx leads to release of enzymes from the cortical granules which degrade bindin receptors.
What does LH act on in terms of spermatogenesis?
The leydig cells.
What does FSH act in terms of spermatogenesis?
Sertoli cells.
What does testosterone act on in terms of spermatogenesis?
it acts on the testes; causing them to produce sperm. But spmatogenesis couldn't proceed without LH and FSH.
Whcih hormones stimulate spermatogenesis in humans?
LH, FSH, and Testosterone
asexual reproduction
mitosis, in which HAPLOIDS undergo morphological changes to produce new HAPLOID gametes
sexual reproduction
a fusion of two haploid cells to form a diploid zygote.
In sexual reproduction, dna replication occurs in diploid or haploid cells?
cocci are [spira/rodlike/spherical/assymetrical] in shape.
Dilation of blood vessels in inflamed tissue would do what?
increase the pressure in capillaries, increasing their permeability, and increase the flow of fluid out of the plasma into the extracellular space in surrounding tissues.
(T/F) The large intestine has a maximal capacity for water resorption.
True; and if this capacity is exceeded by secretion of abnormally large quantities of water, diarrhea will result.
What do pepsin and trypsin hydrolyze.
what is hemolysis
lysis of red blood cells.
What are the steps to bacteria growth?
starts out slowly, while biosynthesis is producing building blocks of growth;
the enters rapid log phase, before
finally entering a stationary phase in which growth slows due to lack of nutrients and an accumulation of toxins.
(T/F) Opening of slow voltage gated ca2+ channels allow calcium in cardiac muscle plays a role in the release of the troponin/tropomyosin complex from actin filaments, allowing myosin heads to bind and initiate contraction.
The neuromuscular junction uses only what NT?
ACh binds to a receptor on the post-synaptic cell, opening a Na channel and causing depolarization of the cell.
Fermentation can keep glycolysis going under anaerobic conditions by...
converting pyruvate into ethanol or lactic acid.
In general, the Krebs cycle incoles the (oxidation/reduction) of high-energy electron carriers (______)
Where would pyruvate dehydrogenase be expected to be found?
in the mitochondria.
Bacteria reproduce asexually in a process of simple cell division termed
binary fission
(T/F) transofrmation and conjucation can alter the genetic content of a bacterial cell but are not involved in cell division or reproduction.
THe complete oxidation of glucose yeilds under aerobic conditions yields:
2ATP and 2NADH through glocyolysis;
2 NADH from pyruvate dehydrogenase
2 FADH2 from the Krebs Cycle
6NADH from the Krebs cycle.
Oxidative phosphorylation: each NADH yeilds 2.5ATP, and each FADH2 yeilds 1.5 ATP.
This all totals up to 32 ATP per glucose.
Amnt of ATP produced under aerobic conditions in eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes.