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47 Cards in this Set

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inhalation
rip cage expends

inc volume of thoaric cavity

reduces the pressure causing lung to expand and fill with air
exhalation
dec in thoartic cavity

inc air pressure and force air out of alveoli

lung deflates
initation of respiration
signal to breath (neverve signal indicates low O2 and high CO2 and low ph in blood) originates from the medula oblongata and travels to the diaphragm via phrenic nerve
transport of gas
occurs at alveoli

alveoli have extremely think walls and are surrounded by net work of pulmonary capillaries

O2 diffuse thru thin wall to blood, CO2 diffuse into the air of lung

hemoglobin carry O2 in the blood

Gas move from region of higher partial pressure region to lower partial pressure.
division of respiratory sys
pharynx-larynx-trachea-bronchus-bronchiole-alveolar duct-alveolar sac-alveoli (where gas exchange occur)
protozoans and coelenterates respiratory system
every cell is in contact with external environment and respiratory gases can be exchange btw cell and enviornment by simple diffusion thru the cell mem.
Annelids
mucus secreted by cells on the external surface of the earthwarms's body provides a moist surface for gasous exchange by diffusion
arthropods
has TRACHEA(respiratory tubules) which reach every cell.

has Spiracles (opening) that permits intake, distribution, removing of gases directly btw the air and the body cell by diffusion
muscle inloved in ventilation ar()
diaphragm
diaphram seperates
the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and the intercostal muscle of the rib cage
during inhalation diaphram
contacts and flattens whileexternal intercostals contract pushing the rib cate up and out
durng exhalation diaphram
both diaphragm and the external intercostal relax, causing a dec in the size of thoracic cavity
fucntion of lymphathic system
(3)
return excess interstitial fluid that accumulate in the tissue to circulation

absorption of fats

assist in immune surveillance
lymph
excess interstitial fluid
lymph ismoved through the system in lymph vessle w/o
direct pumping
move mainly bythe pressure of skeletal muscle acting against the lymph vesel to move liquid foward
lymph insidethe vessle is () pressure
very low pressure
which helps draw liquids out of tissue and into the lymph system
lymph vessle drain lymph into the large vein of?
cardiovascular
blockage of lymp can cause?
swelling as fluid accumulate in the tissue
lacteals
lymph capillaries
collect fats from Small Intestine and transport them t the crculatory system
lymphatic system joins the circulatory system at the ? and move what?
thorasic duct

fat
as lymph moves thru the lymphatic sys it pass thru?
lymph node
the filteration system cleans the
extracellular fluids
what is absorbed wia digestive system pass through the lymphaic sys before entering the circulatorysystem via thoracic duct
triglyceride
surfactant
a fluid that coat alveolus which reduce the surface tension along alveoli and faclitates gas diffusion aross the membrane
substance that prevents alveolar collapse
surfactant
for O2 partial pressure is greater in () than ()
alveoli > blood
for CO2 partial pressure is greater in () than ()
blood > alveoli
panting
lowering of the blood temp

taking rapid breath than usual
mucus
mucus coat keep passage way most and entrap any fre floating particle matter such as dust and pollen
lung is surrounded by?
parietal pleura mem.(outer)
visceral mem. (inner)
intepleural space
region btw parietal and visceral mem.
diaphram curved whn
relexed
diaphram flattes when
contracted

expandin chest cavity
nagative pressure breathing
inhalation
intercostal muscle located in the hest aid in
inhalation
inhalation
active process of muscle contraction

diaphramgm contracts
externl intercostal muscle contract moving rib cate up and out
exhalation
passive
diaphragm relexes
external intercostal muscle relex
ventilation is regulated by
medulla oblongata
changes in PH and partial pressure of COx in the blood is responded by
carotid body
CO2 inc=PH dec then?
depth of ventilation are inc
spirmeter measures?
the rate of respiration and the amont of air normally present in the lungs
tidal volume
first inc in the graph

amt of air normaly exhaled and inhaled w/ each breath
the expiratory reserve volume
amt of air that can still be forcebly exhaled following a nrmal exhalation
vital capacity
maximum amt of air that can be forcibly exhled an inhaled w/each breath
residual lung capacity
volume of air in the lungs that is always in the lungs even following exhalation

this air also helps prevent alveolar collpse during exhalation
pathway O2 from external environment to circlatry sys
nose-pharynx-larynx-treachea-lung-bronchus-bronchioles-alveolar duct-alveolar sac-sarfactant-alveolar mem-capillary mem-RBC
pathway O2 from external environment to circlatry sys
nose-pharynx-larynx-treachea-lung-bronchus-bronchioles-alveolar duct-alveolar sac-sarfactant-alveolar mem-capillary mem-RBC