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65 Cards in this Set

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cartilage
connective tissue that is softer and moreflexible than bone
bone formation
occur by either endochondrial ossification or

intramembranous ossification
endochondrial ossification
cartilage is replaced by bone
ex. long bone
intramembranous ossification
mesenchymal(embryonic)undifferentiated connective tissue is transformed to bone
bone
body support
mineralized connective tissue
total 206 bone in the human body

compact bone and sponge bone
compact bone
no cavity
made of structure called osteon

each osteon has harvasion canal surrounded by lamellal
osteocyte
in lacuna which is connected to canaliculs in
harvasion cannal
central channel in compact bone
blood vessle and nerve가있다
Sponge bone
consist of interconnected lattice of bony spicules

cavity in btw spicules filled w/ yellow and or read bone marrow
Osteoblast
build cells
synthezsize and secrete organic constituents of bone matrix
osteoclasts
break down bone
involve in bone resorption
axial skelton
skull
-cranium
-face
-auditory ossicle
-hyoid

Thoraic cage
-sternum
-ribs

vertibral column
-vertebral
-sacrum
-coccyx
appendicular
arms
-humerous
-radious
-ulna
-carpalas
-meta carpal
-phalanges

leg
-femur
-patella
-Tibia, Fibia
-metatarsal
-phalanges

Pectorial girdle

Pelvic bone
ligaments
serve as bone to bone connector
support and strentheden marable joint
tendons
attach skeletal muscle to bone and bend the skeletal of the moveable joint
Bone marrow
red- site for blood formation

yellow-inactive and infiltrated by adipose tissue
smooth muscle
control by autonomous system

lack sarcomeric strafication

myogenic activity
cardiac muscle
controled by automonic sys

myogtenic activity
-contraction w/o stimulation from nerve cell
Skeletal mucle
mutinucleated

voluntary movement thus somatic nerve system.
skeletal muscle break down
sarcomere (contractile unit)
myofibril
fiber
bundle
muscle
myofibril
filament which makes fiber

enveloped by a modified endoplasmic reticulum that stores calcium ion called sarcoplasmic reticulum

has myosin (thick) and actin (thin)
I band
think filament only (in the middle btw two z line)
Z line
boundary of single sacomere
H band
thick only
A band
thick and thin
nuromuscular junction
link btw nerve terminal and sacolema of muscle fiber
Contraction
neurotransmitter (acyticoline)generate acton potential cause sarcoplasmicreticulum to release Ca into sarcoplasma

Ca initate the contract of sacromere.

actin and myson slide pass each other and sacomere contracts
purpose of skeletal sys
protection and support
movement
maitenance of calcium ion homeostsis
formation of blood cell(in the bone marrow)
when c ion concentration of the bloo dec ca is drawn from the (), when thec ion concentration of the blood inc te excess ca is stored in ()
the bone
bone is
hard strong mineralized tissue
contain both organic and inorganic which combine and harden to form hydroxyapatite crystal
chondrin
make up cartilage
long bone (arm and leg) is made through
endchondral ossification
skull is made throug
itramembranous ossifiation
axial skeletal
skull, vertebral column and rib cage
appendicular
arm, leg, pectorial, pelvic girdles
bone structure
epiphysis: sponge (front and back)bone

diaphysis: compac (middle) bone
epiphysis
made up of sponge bone surrounded by a thin layer of cmpact bone
diaphysis
made of bone marrow surrounded by the layer of compact bone
epiphyseal plate
in growing bone, which seperates diaphysis frm epiphysis

longitudinal bone growth
periosteum
outside covering of the bone
contain blood vessle and callogenus fiber
muscle ligaments and tendoms may attach to the () or directly to ()
periosteum

compact bone
red marrow
contains stem cell which form blood and immune cell
yellow marrow
is use to store fat
harverian canals
runs along the length of the bone in compact bone

contains blood and lymph vessels, nerve and connective tissue
lamellae
concentric layers of bony matrix around HC
osteon
harversian canal + lamellae
lucunae
space in the lamellae"bony matrix" which house osteocytes
osteocyte
bone cell located in lucunae (in laellae)
canaliculi
link lucunae to harversian canal
bone marrow are found in?
cetral cvities of long bones
bone formation
inorganic (ca and p) absorbed from the blood
bone reabsorption
break down Ca P releaed into the blood
parathyroid hormone
inc plasma calcium level by inc ca release from boe
calcitonin
lower blood ca level by inhibiting ca release from bone
regulate by parathyroid homon
osteoblast
regulated by calcitonin
osteoclast
produce collagen which when mineralized forms bone
osteoblast
involve in bone resorptoin
osteoclast
3 types of joints
immovavle
partly movable
synovial
immovable joints
joint connects bone that don't move
bone of the skull
partly movable joints
allow limited flexibility and usually have cartilage btw the bones

joint btw two vetebrae of the spinal column
synovial joints
allow wie range of movement

lubricated by synovial fluid

hip joint
muscle only contract and exten ()
passively
muscle are found in ()pair
antagonistic
ex bicep and tricep
when bicep relex then tricep extend vice versa
greatest amt of Ca is detected in where?
epiphyseal plate "where growth take place"