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55 Cards in this Set

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exocrine system
use ducts or glands to secrete hormone

ex. gall bladder
endocrine system
secrete hormones directly into blood
three types of hormone
steriod
peptide
amino acid derivative
steriod hormone
lipid derviative

ex. estrogen,aldosterone,progestron

produced from testes, ovaries, placenta and adrenal cortex

lipid soluble
steroid hormone enter their target cell directly and bind to specific receptor protein in cytoplasm.
(intracellular receptor)

hormone/receptor complex binding to DNA promotes transcription of specific genes
steroid Hormone vs peptide hormone

precursor
SH: cholestrol

PH: amino acid
peptide hormone
peptide hormone is first messenger
it binds to a specific receptor on the surface

cyclic AMP act as secondary messenger relaying messages from extracellular peptide hormone to cytoplasmic enzyme
steroid Hormone vs peptide hormone

permeability
SH: non-polar thus permeable

PH: polar, impermeable
steroid Hormone vs peptide hormone

receptor
SH: intracelluar receptor

PH: membrane receptor
steroid Hormone vs peptide hormone

action
SH: relay message by forming DNA receptor complex

PH: relay message by secondary messenger b/c it can't go into membrane
steroid Hormone vs peptide hormone

onset
SH: long

PH: quick
steroid Hormone vs peptide hormone

duration
SH: long

PH: short
steroid Hormone vs peptide hormone

example
SH: testastrone,estrogen

PH: insulin/ADH
Hypothalamus
part of the forebrain, located above pituary gland

receive neural transmission from other parts of the brain and from peripheral nerve that trigger specific response from its neurosecretory cells

regulate pituary gland secretion via "-" feeback and through action of inhibiting and releasing hormone.

neurosecretory cells in hypothalamus synthesize both oxytocin and ADH and transport them to posterior pituary for storage and secretion.

produce oxytonin ADH which are stored and released by the posterior pituary gland
fill in the blank

hypothalamus produce ()hormone that regulatehormone released by the ()
1. TRH, GnRH

2. Anterior pituary gland
TRH
thyrotropin-releasing hormone
GnRH
gonadotropin-releasing hormone

stimulate anterior pituary to secrete FSH and LH
hypothalamus produce () and () which are stored and released by the () pituary gland
1. oxytocin

2. ADH
Anterior Pituary
synthesis both direct and tropic hormone

Fsh
Lh
Acth
Tsh

Prolactig
I(ignore)
Growth Hormone
Direct hormone
directly stimulate target cell

Growth Horomes
Prolactin
Growth Horomone
stimulate proteinsynthesis and promotes bone growth
lact of Growth H.

overproduction of Growth H.
in child lack of GH is dwarfism and overproduction is giganism

in adult overproduction is acromegaly, disproportionate growth of bone
acromegaly
due to overproducton of GH in adult

disproportionate growth of bone
Prolactin
stimulate the secretion of milk and brest development
Tropic Hormone
stimulate other endocrine glands to relese hormone

TSH, ACTH, FSH and LH
TSH
thyroid stimulating hormone

stimulate thyroid gland to synthesize and release thyroid homone including thyroxin
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic homone

stimulate adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoid (cortisol) and is regulated by releasing hormone corticotropin releasing factor
FSH
Follicle stimulating hormone

stimulate growth of ovarian follicle and promotion of sperm in the testies
LH
luteinizing hormone

cause secretion of female sex hormone by ovaries and male sex hormone by testes
menstrual cycle
two phase

follicular phase

luteal phase
follicular phase
cessation of previous flow

FSH is secreted and promotes the development of several ovarian follicles which start secreting ESTROGEN

ESTROGEN cause a build up (vascuralization and gland development) of the ENDOMETRIAL WALL

ESTROGEN shuts off FSH secrfetion through negative fee back

ESTROGEN level continue to rise and cause a surge in LH
Luteal phase
LH induces the rupture follicle to develop into the CORPUS LUTEUM which secrete ESTROGEN and PROGESTRONE

PROGESTRONE cause the glands of the endometrium to mature and produce secretions that prepare the body for implantation

If ovum is not fertilized, the corpus luteum breaks down and estrogen and progestrone level drop off. Menstruation occur.
Thyroid gland
located in treachea

release thyroxin and calcitonin
thyroxin
regulate metabolism and cellular respiration
hyperthyrodism vs hypothyroidism
hyper- overproduction, result in insomia, fast heart rate, inc BP, sweating, weight loss, protruding eye

hypo-undersecreted, result in obesity and lack of energy, fatigue
in new born baby, cretinsm
calcitonin
inhibits the release of calcium ion in the bone
Parathyoid gland
4 small pea shaped embadded in the thyroid

release Parathyroid hormone
paratyroid hormone
cause inc in blood calcium level
Adrenal cortex
adreanal gland located topof the kidneys

stimulate by stress and ACTH

produce steroid hormon
-Glucocorticoids
-Mineralocorticoids
-Cortisol Sex hormone
Glucocorticoids
ex. cortisol
steroid hormone

1. promotes formation of glucose from protein and fat (gluconeogensis)
2. decrease glucose utilizaztion
3.supresses inflamatory response
Mineralcorticoids
ex. aldosterone
steroid hormone

1. inc sodium reabsorption by kidney and inc potassium excretion by turning on Na.K pump

2. cause active reabsorption of sodium and passive reabsorption of water in nephron thus raise blood volume and pressure
Adrenal Medulla
release

adrenaline/epinephrine

they are class of amino acid derive and also neurotransmitter
Adrenaline/epnephrine
regulate flight or fight response by inc the metabolic rate, heart rate, blood pressure, the glucose concentration in the blood and blood

dec blood supply to kidney, skin and digestive system.
Pancreas
both endocrine and exocrine

**Endocrine function**
function by Islets of Langerhans, contain alpha and beta cells

alpha cell secretes Glucogon

Beta cell secretes Insulin

**Exocrine Function**
by the cell that secretes digestive enzyme (pancreatic juice) to small intestine via series of ducts
Insulin
from pancreas

stimulate cell to remove glucose frmo blood and lower blood sugar
Glucagon
from pancreas

respond to low blood sugar level

stimulate the conversion of glycogen to glucose in order to raise sugar levels in the blood
Calcium level in blood
PTH increase Ca

Calcitoin dec Ca
Glucose level in blood
Insulin dec plasma glucose

Glucagon, glucorticoid and epineprhine inc plasma glucose
Epinephrine and glucose
convert

glycogen to glucose
glucogon and glucose
convert

glycogen to glucose
Glucocorticoid (cortisol) and glucose
convert
from noncarbohydrates like protein and fasts to glucose
this is known as gluconeogensis
gluconeogensis
from protein and fats to glucose
auxin
plant hormone

growth pattern (phototropism)
giberillins
plant hormone

rapid stem elongation
Kinins
plant hormone

cell division
Ethylene
plant hormone

fruit ripening