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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
This element is in diamonds and soot
carbon
anything that has mass and occupies space is ____________
matter
what is order?
the complex arrangement of atoms and the interactions among molecules
one of the fundamental "kinds" of matter, cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical means.
element
a fundamental unit of matter, each element has its own unique type
atom
carbon forms _____ bonds to become stable.
four
a substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a FIXED RATIO
compound
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
molecule
true/false: a molecule can be composed of two or more of the SAME OR DIFFERENT atoms
true
Diversity of matter is not due to the number of elements but instead______________________
the virtually infinite ways of arranging them
True/False: the properties of compounds are different from the properties of elements that compose them.
True
Atomic # of Hydrogen
1
Atomic # of Carbon
6
Atomic number of Nitrogen
7
Atomic # of oxygen
8
Atomic # of phosphorus
15
Atomic # of Sulfur
16
What are the 6 elements that compose 99% of all biomolecules?
SPONCH-
Sulfur,phosphorous, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen
The number of protons in an atom is...
the atomic number
distinct amounds of energy for electrons which keep them at relative distances from the nucleus
shells.
a bond in which a 2 electrons are chared by two atoms
covalent bond
__________ are the most important for determining bonding properties
electrons
_______ shells must be full before electrons can exist in more distant shells.
closer
_______ electrons are the only electrons that interact to form bonds
unpaired valence electrons
this element is the framework for all biomolecules
carbon
What is the smallest element that can form 4 bonds?
Carbon
Nitrogen forms _____ bonds to become stable
3
Hydrogen forms ____ chemical bond to become stable
1
The simplest and most abundant element is __________
Hydrogen
Oxygen forms ___ bonds to become stable.
2
True/False: oxygen is about 65% of your weight
true (water molecules)
oxygen is about ___ percent of the atmosphere
21%
Sulphur forms ___ bonds to become stable
2
which element doesnt play by the bonding rules?
Phosphorus
Unity lies in the _____________ levels of organization
lower
What are emergent properties?
properties that appear at a certain level because of the specific arrangement/interaction of the parts on the levels below.
At what level does the property of being "alive" emerge?
cell
what are the seven attributes of life?
order
reproduction
development
energy utilization
response to the enviornment
homeostasis
evolutionary adaption
What is the cell theory?
All living things are made of cells.
Cells arise only by the division of already existing cells.
What are the two types of cell architecture?
prokaryotic and eukaryotic
what are the three main differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic- bacteria and archea
nucleus lacks membrane
no membranous organelles
what are cells commonly measured in?
micrometers
micrometers are _______ of a millimeter
1/1000
1/1000 of a micrometer is a
nanometer
nanometers are good for measuring ______
organelles
Why are cells so small? (2 main points)
when things get bigger, the surface to volume ratio decreases.
- if something in the middle of the cell had to get out, would take too long, surface:volume ratio needs to be high.
What are the two ways we study cells? (since theyre so small)
Fractionation
Microscopy
Instrument used for fractionation
centrifuge
What is resolution?
The clarity of an image, the minimum distance two points can be apart and still be considered two points
Electron microscopes use __________________ rather than light
a beam of electrons
Electron microscops focus using ________________ rather than _________
electromagnetic "lenses"
glass
electron microscopes have detection via _____________________________________
conversion of the "electon shadow" to a visible image
what are three disadvantages of electron microscopes?
-material cannot be alive;no motion
-no color
-expensive
what is the main advantage of electron microscopes?
greatly improved resolution
(True/False) The molecules making up cells and their parts contain the same types of atoms found in the non-living world and obey the same chemical laws.
True
The difference between living and non living systems is...
order
a compound containing ionic bonds is a
salt
what is the most common element by weight in dehydrated cells?
carbon
an atom or molecule with a net charge is
an ion
Atoms become charged by...
losing of gaining electrons
an electrical attraction holding oppositely charged ions together is an...
ionic bond
True/False: ionic bonds have to form at the same time atoms ionize.
false
an atoms gain or loss of electron/s is
ionization
salts exist in the structure of
crystals
these salt crystals have a definite _______ but not definite _________
ratio, size
a covalent molecule with a net charge is a
complex ion
Complex ions often form when ________________
molecules gain or lose hydrogen ions.
when a hydrogen dissociates, it leaves its __________ behind
electron
Hydrogen bonds are (continuously changing/unchanging) bonds
continuously changing
True/False: complex bonds can bond ionically to form salts.
true
True/False: A large molecule can contain ionized groups, both + and -
true
true/false: ionic bonds cannot bond within or between molecules
false
ionic bonding within and between molecules _______________ and ___________
stabilizes shape, allows interactions
covalent bonds in which the electrons are shared unequally between atons with different electronegativity.
polar covalent bonds
the strength with which an aton holds electrons in a covalent bond
electronegativity
Because electrons tend to stay nearer to the atom with greater electronegativity, that end of the bond has a slight _______________
negative character
Which atom has greater electronegativity?
Carbon and Hydrogen
neither, it is equal (it is a polar covalent bond)
Which atom has greater electronegativity?
Oxygen and Hydrogen
Oxygen
Which atom has greater electronegativity?
Sulfur and Hydrogen
Sulfur
Which atom has greater electronegativity?
Nitrogen and hydrogen
Nitrogen
A molecule containing significant "charge separation" due to one or more polar bonds is...
a polar molecule