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68 Cards in this Set

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negative feeback example
when there is high blood pressure the islets of langerhans secretes insulin to lower it, but that causes glucagon to be secreted which changes glycogen to oxygen and makes the blood level high again
fluid mosaic model
model of cell membrane with fats (circles) and proteins (big lumps)
cell membrane
regulates the transport of materials into and out of the cell--between cell and environment--controls the nature of cell's internal environment
cytoplasm
watery medium for suspension of cell organelles and circulation throughout the cell----site of many chemical reactions
nucleus
contains cell's genetic info--allows transfer of it during synthesis and reproduction
ribosome
site of protein synthesis---either attached to ER or floats freely
mitochondrion
contains enzymes necessary to allow cell to perform certain aspects of chemical respiration, release energy from stored food molecules
vacuole
contains water, enzymes, and others-----may serve to store food molecules, nonremovable wastes, or secretion products
nucleuolus
functions in cell's synthesis mechanism--forms ribosomes
endoplasmic reticulum
intercellular membranes that function in cell's synthesis mechanism--houses ribosomes, accepts manufactured proteins, and transports proteins
golgi complex
functions in ell's synthesis mechanism--accepts and transports proteins
lysosome
AIDS IN NUTRition by carrything digestive enzymes and by merging with food-containing vacuoles. also may help recycle aging or defective cells
centriole
found primarily in animal cells and functions in process of cell division
chloroplast
contains chlorophyll---found in plants and algae, where photosynthhesis occurs
cell wall
found in plants--probides mechanical support and protection for the cell
3 organic compounds commonly found in living things
water, salts, and acids and bases
organic
contain carbon and hydrogen
4 elements usually in living things
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
covalent bonds
sharing of electrons
ration of hydrogen to oxgen in carbohydrates
2:1
monosaccharide
simple sugar---glucose
dissacharide
two monosaccarides
structure of a lipid
one glycerol and 3 fatty acids
what element do proteins have that carbohydrates and lipids dont?
nitrogen
groups on an amino acic chain
carboxyl (COOH group on the right---dehydration synthesis/hydrolysis)
amino group (NH2 group on left)
R group (radical/variable group)
peptide
name of the actual chemical bond between carbon and nitrogen atoms that join two amino acid units together
what do carbohydrates break down into?
simple sugars
what do lipids break down into
fatty acids and glycerol
what do proteins break down into?
amino acids
what do proteins break down into?
amino acids
what do nucleic acids break down into?
nucleotides
two types of nucleic acids
DNA and Rna
neurotransmitters
carry nerve impulses
what are the 3 subunits of nucleotides?
1) phosphate group (phospurus and oxygen)
2) deoxyribose- five-carbon sugar made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
3) nitrogenous base- (in DNA, adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine)
Watson-Crick Model
attempt to describe the physical and chemical structure of DNA in a way that would eplain its known characteristics-double helix
what holds bases in DNA together?
hydrogen bonds
how does DNA replicate?
two strands of DNA unzip, free nucelotides floating around pair up, now there are two identical strands that are free to separate into two chromosome strands
chromatids
identical sister chromosomes
centromere
holds chromatids together
mitosis interphase
cell grows and replicates its DNA and ccentrioles
prophase
cnetrioles separate and spindle begins to form--nuclear membrane breaks down and chromatin condenses into chromosomes
metaphase
chromosomes line up in the center--each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at itts centromere
anaphase
sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart
telophase
chromosomes father at opposite ends of the cell --two new nuclear membranes form
cytokinesis
cytoplasm pinches in half--each daughter cell has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes
diploid number
number of chromosomes a species has in its body cells
gametogensis
formation of gametes
monoploid number
reduced (half) # of chromosomes in sex cells
somatic tissues
body tissues
gene chromosome theory
chromosomes are made of small units called genes--genes carry hereditary info and are found at specific locations along chromosomes
gene linkage
traits located on the same chromosome and are generally inherited together
crossing-over
occurs in meiosis during synapsis---chromatids of homologous chromosome pair sometimes twist around rach other and chromatids may break, echange segments, and rejoin--increases variation
incomplete dominance
blend of phenotypes --no one trait is dominant
multiple alleles
there may be three or more alleles for a particular trait
autosomes
chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
hemophilia
disease when blood does not clot properly
myopia
extreme nearsightedness
segregation and recombination
during meiosis, chromosomes in each pair of homologous chromosomes separate to form two monoploid chromsomes--randomly separates into alleles (segregation) and recombine when two monoploid nuclei fuse to form a diploid nucleus
codominance
both traits show
independent assortment
genes located on NONHOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES are free to separate during meiosis --traits are inherited independently from each other--source of variation
gene linkage
when genes are located on the same chromosome and are linked
multiple alles
more than one allele for a trait
sex determination
male--XY
female-XX
depends on combination of chromosomes
recombinant DNA
DNA produced from genetic engineering--inserted a part of DNA from a cell and adding it to another cell
how can you alter genes?
insert, delete, or substitute DNA segments
grafting
plant propagation--stems of desirable plants are attached to root-stocks of related varieties to produce new plants
vegetative propagation
asexual reproduction where new organisms are produced from the nonfloral parts of the parent plant
binary fission
a type of cell division in which mitosis is followed by equal cytoplasmic division