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151 Cards in this Set

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What is drawing?
A simple and accurate representation of apparatus, specimen, or model used in the experiment.
T/F. A diagram is a true representation.
False
What is a specimen?
A portion of an organism.
Give some drawing techniques to show details of grey etc.
stippling (dots)
streaking(diagonal lines, straight lines, etc.)
cross hatching (xxxxx but joined together)
hatching (xxxx)
symbols (i,o,x, arrow etc.)
Give 4 rules used when making drawings.
Use hard sharp pencil-not crayons, pens, markers, etc.
Drawings should never be shaded - use the techniques
Line drawings should be smooth, clean and continuous
All drawings ahould have a fully underlined title written in capital latters beneath the drawing.
Give 2 types of multicellular organisms
Humans and Animals
Give 3 examples of unicellular organisms
Amoeba, Paramecium and Euglena
Give another name for a living thing
Organism
Name the two types of organisms
Unicellular and multicellular
What determines the size of an organism?
the number of cells
What is a cell? A cell is a unit of protoplasm surrounded by a cell
A cell is a unit of protoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane and is the building block which makes up living things. A cell is very small
What kind of microscope would you need to see cell structures clearly?
An electron micoscope
Give 2 types of multicellular organisms
Humans and Animals
Give 3 examples of unicellular organisms
Amoeba, Paramecium and Euglena
Give another name for a living thing
Organism
Name the two types of organisms
Unicellular and multicellular
What determines the size of an organism?
the number of cells
What is a cell? A cell is a unit of protoplasm surrounded by a cell
A cell is a unit of protoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane and is the building block which makes up living things. A cell is very small
What kind of microscope would you need to see cell structures clearly?
An electron micoscope
Give 2 types of multicellular organisms
Humans and Animals
Give 3 examples of unicellular organisms
Amoeba, Paramecium and Euglena
Give another name for a living thing
Organism
Name the two types of organisms
Unicellular and multicellular
What determines the size of an organism?
the number of cells
What is a cell? A cell is a unit of protoplasm surrounded by a cell
A cell is a unit of protoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane and is the building block which makes up living things. A cell is very small
What kind of microscope would you need to see cell structures clearly?
An electron micoscope
Give the function of the cell wall.
It gives the cell a fixed shape. It also gives support to the cell in that it prevents it from bursting.
Give the function of the cell membrane.
It controls what goes in and out of the cell because of its selectively permeable membrane.
Give another name for the cell membrane.
plasma membrane
Give the function for the chloroplast.
It contains chlorophyll which traps sunlight. The energy of sunlight is used for making food for the plant by the process of photosynthesis
Give the function for the nucleus.
It contains chromosomes which carry the genetic information for the cell. It is the brain of the cell and controls all the activities within the cell.
Give the function of the nucleolus.
It manufactures ribosomes and RNA
What does RNA mean?
Ribonucleic Acid
What does DNA mean?
De-oxyribonucleic Acid
Give the function of the mitochondrion.
It is the power house of the cell. Energy from the food we eat is released from the mitochondrion
Give the function of the endoplasmic reticulum.
It is a network of membranes and channnels. It is the site for the synthesis of lipids and fats. It transports proteins made by the ribosomes.
Give the function of the ribosomes
They are the sites for protein synthesis
Give th function of the golgi body?
It secretes substances needed by the cells. eg. enzymes
Give the other names for the golgi body.
golgi body, golgi apparatus, and golgi complex
Give the function of the vacuole
It stores water. It blows up the cell with water which gives support. It also stores sugars, wastes, and other substances in solution called cell sap
Give the function of the chromatin reticulum
It contains the DNA-the molecule ofo inheritance. The DNA is organized into genes which controls all cellular activities.
Give the function of the lysosomes.
It contains enzymes that are responsible for the breaking down of cell parts. It is a specialized vacuole that aids the process of nutrition by carrying digestive enzymes and by merging with food-containing vacuoles; may also help tp recycle aging or defective cells.
Give the function of the centrosomes.
It initiates cell division
What is excess food stored as?
glycogen granules
Give 4 differences between the plant cell and the animal cell.
The plant cell has 1 large prominent vacuole while in the animal cell, vacuoles are abesent, or very small, and in greter numbers.

The plant cell has a cellulose permeabe cell wall and chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll , while animals cells have neither

In plant cells, the carbohydrates are stored as starch molecules but in animal cells, they are stores as glycogen molecules.
Which kind of cell contain both centrosomes and lysosomes?
Animal cells
What is a tissue?
It is a group of structurally similar cells of performing a similar activity.
Give examples of some tissues.
In animals, nerve tissue, blood tissue, and muscle tissue, and in plants, epidermal tissue, photsynhetic tissue
What is an organ?
An organ is a group of 2 or more different tissues working together to carry out a common function.
Give examples of organs.
In animals, the heart, liver, legs, arms, kidney, and in plants, leaf, stem, root, flowers etc.
What is a system?
A system is a group of 2 or more organs working together to carry out a common function.
Give some examples of systems.
digestive system, excretory, circulatory, root and shoot system, etc.
What is the digestive system responsible for?
For breaking down complex and soluble foods to simple soluble forms.
What is cell specialization?
This is when cells have special characteristics in order to carry out its particular activity.
What is diffusion?
It is the net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration along a diffusion gradient.
What substances can diffusion occur in?
In both liquid and gases
When does a diffusion gradient occur?
When there is a difference in the number of molecules , or concentration of molecules between 2 regions.
Give another name for a diffusion gradient.
a concentration gradient
Give 1 example of diffusion.
In the lungs, where carbon dioxode diffuses from the blood to the lungs. (high to low concentration) On the other hand, oxygen also diffuses from the lungs into the blood. (higher to lower)
Give 1 example of diffusion.
Diffusion occurs in amoeba wastes such as amonia where they are at a higher concentration in the cell than in its surrounding environment. (water) Hence, amonia diffuses from the cell into the surrounding medium.
What is osmosis.
It is a special kind of diffusion. It is the net movement of solvent molecules usually water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a selectively permeable
What does selectively permeable membrane mean?
That only water and some substances can pass through the membrane, but other substances cannot.
Which membrane is selectively permeable?
cell membrane
Give three types of processes that facilitate the movement of substances in cells?
Diffusion, Osmosis and Active Transport
What is active transport?
It is the net movement of particles from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration
Give a difference between diffusion and active transport.
In diffusion, particles go along their diffusion gradient, but in active transport, the particles move against their diffusion gradient
Give a difference between diffuison and osmosis.
Diffusion uses both liquids and gases, but in osmosis only liquid particles are used.
What does isotonic mean?
that no change will occur-iso means same
What does hypotonic mean?
that the cell will become swollen-hypo means below
What does hypertonic mean?
that the cell will lose water and shrink
What does turgid mean?
Turgid mans the cell is swollen
What does flaccid mean?
that the cell loses structure-it shrinks
What are the materials used in photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide and water
What is the product produced in photosynthesis?
glucose or starch
What is the by-product in photosynthesis?
Oxygen
What condition/s is/are needed for photosynthesis?
sunlight, and chlorophyll
Write the equation for photosynthesis?
water+carbon dioxide sunlight /chlorophyll Glucose + Oxygen
What are producers?
Produucers are green plants which use simple inorganic compounds (water and carbon dioxide) and energy from the sun to build up complex organic compuds containing trapped energy (glucose)
What is chlorophyll?
Chlorophyll is a complex green pigment
What is at the centre of a chlorophyll molecule?
A single atom of magnesium and four atoms of nitrogen
What will happen without supplies of nitrogen?
A plant cannot make chlorophyll and cannot photosynthesize successfully
What makes up a molecule?
Two or more atoms
Give the 2 main stages in photosynthesis.
The Light dependent stage and the Light independent stage
Give another name for the Light independent stage.
the dark stage
Explain the light dependent stage.
In ths stage, chlorophyll traps the light energy from the sun. The energy is used to split the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is a waste product and diffuses out of the leaf through the stomata.
Explain the light independent stage or dark stage.
In this stage, no sunlight is needed. Carbon dioxide combines with hydrogen to give you the glucose. This can occur in the dark.
What are consumers?
Organisms which depend directly or indirectly on plants for their energy.
Who are 1st order consumers?
Those organisms that eat plants
Give two other names for first order consumers.
Herbivores or primary consumers
Give 3 examples of primary consumers.
grasshopper, caterpilllars, bees etc.
Who are second order consumers?
Those organisms that eat animals that have eaten plants
Give two other names for second order consumers.
Carnivores, or secondary consumers
Give an example of a second order consumer
the praying mantis
Who are 3rd order consumers?
Those organisms that eat animals that have eaten animals
Give another name for 3rd order consumers.
Carnivores
Who are omnivores?
Those organisms that eat both plants and animals
GIve an example of 3rd order consumers.
lizards
Give an example of omnivores
humans
Who are scavengers?
These are animald which eat deaed decaying organisms.
Give 4 examples of scavengers?
Earthworms, ants, termites, john crow etc.
Who are decomposers?
They bring about decay of dead organisms and wastes, and relase minerals and other materials to be re-used by plants
Give 3 examples of decomposers.
decay, bacteria, and fungi
Who are parasites?
Plants or animals feeding on living organisms
Give some examples of parasites.
tapeworm, ticks, fleas, lice, dodder etc.
What are food chains?
They show feeding relationship between different groups of organisms
What are trophic levels?
These are the feeding positions in a food chain
Which type of organisms belong to more than one tropic level?
Omnivores (eg. Humans)
Who occupies the 1st trophic level?
Producers
Who occupies the 2nd trophic level?
Herbivores (1st order consumers)
Who occupies the 3rd tropic level?
2nd order consumers
Who occupies the 4th trophic level?
3rd order consumers
What does a food web show?
The inter-related food chain in a community
Which order consumers is a predator?
3rd and 2nd order consumers (carnivores)
What does a predator eat?
1st and 2nd order consumers (herbivores)
What do parasites feed on?
hosts
What are parasites called when they feed on living organisms inside?
Endoparasites
What are the parasites called when they feed on living organisms on the surface?
Ectoparasites
T/F. Parasites are usually larger than their hosts.
False
Give an example of parasites. (plants)
dodder
Give some examples of parasites. (animals)
lice, tapeworm, fleas, ticks
Give an example of parasites. (fungi)
athlete's foot
Give an example of parasites. (viruses)
HIV
Give some examples of hosts of tapeworm.
cows, pigs, of humans
Give an example of hosts of fungi.
potato plants
Give some examples of hosts of viruses
humans and birds
Give some examples of hosts of ticks.
dogs and cows
Give some examples of hosts of fleas.
dogs and cats
What is mutualism?
This is when two oragnisms live in close association for their mutual benefit.
Give an example of mutualism .
coral + green algae
the coral gains food and oxygen and algae gains mineral salts, protection and carbon dioxode.
What does nitrogen fixing bacteria convert nitrogen gas from the air into?
nitrates
What is commensalism?
It is a loose association between 2 organisms in which one gains and the other neither loses nor gains
Which organism gains?
the commensal
Which organism neither loses nor gains?
the host
Give an example of commensalism.
egret+cattle
The egret feeds on the ticks from the cattle's skin and on insects distributed in the grass. The cattle is warned of something approaching it when the egret flies away.
T/F Sometimes included as commensalism is the fact that the host also benefits to some degree.
True..duh!
Give an example where commensalism can benefit both organisms.
the egrets will reduce the number of ticks from the cattle's skin
What are epiphytes?
These are plants that attach themselves to trees that are high above the ground
Describe epiphytes.
They have thich porous roots adapted to catching and holding rainfall. Many also have leaves arranged so that they can catch water, insects, falling leaves, and other debris. They do not take nourishment from the plant upon which they grow, and may cause minor injuries by shading the leaves of the supporting plants or causing the limbs to break from their weight.
Give some examples of epiphytes.
orchids, lichens, ferns etc.
What do cells need energy for?
for life processes (metabolism)
Why do organisms need energy?
movement of protoplasm and muscles
building up of complex substances
active transport of materials
transmission of nervous impulses
keeping a constant body temperature
growth, repair and division of cells
Where does energy transfer occur from?
From the sun to producers and to consumers.
Explain energy transfer
I should know it..It's too long to write..trust me..look in exercise book
What is the biological mass?
It is the total living material which makes up the organism
Howm uch percent is the air made up of nitrogen?
79%
What is nitrogen an essential component of?
of proteins, DNA and enzymes
How do animals receive nitrogen?
From protein in their diet through eating plants and animals
How do plants manufacture protein?
By absorbing nitrogen in the soil , mostly from nitrate ions.
What are nitrate ions combined with?
with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen taken from glucose (photosynthesis)
What are the 4 main processes in the nirtogen cycle?
Nitrogen Fixation
Decay
Nitrification
and
Denitrification
For explaining these processes..
look in exercise book...make sure I look for the nitrogen cycle, and energy transfer...IMPORTANT