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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
HM had what removed
medial temporal , including hippocmpus and amydala
from BOTH sides
HM can retain
normal amount of info, if not distracted
slightly higher IQ
reduced blood to brain, can produce similar symptoms of HM
patient NA suffered damage to
dorsomedial thalamus, both mammilaries
NA suffers
amnesic for verbal learning, moslty anterograde
Both NA and HM
normal ST, impaired LT< preserved ablility to form non declarative memories
korsakoff & brain
dorsomedial thalamus
mammilary bodies
frontal ctx

not temporal lobe
KC & brain damage
left frontal parietal
left parietal occipital

reduced hippocampus
KC & memory
loss episodic, semantic OK

deficits due to cortical damage, particluarly FRONTAL PARIETAL
if there is a sudden increase in strength in stim that has not been habituated, subsequent reactions exaggerated
three reasons for loss of memory
never formed
deteriorates as consequence of time
may be irretrievable from injury
iconic memory
a few seconds at most
two alternative, forced choice procedure
present 1000
correct recognize 90%, even with 10,000 to discriminate from
delay non match to sample
medial temporal lobe impairs declarative memory
animal research has shown that _ is unimportant in declarative memories
kesner's experiemnts limited to
short term memory
test phase of kesner rat study
food in arm that the rats just entered
lesions in X impair 8 arm maze task, test phase
response task of kesner
rienforce if turns SAME direction, memory of previous response
lesions of X impair kesner's response task
cuadate nucleus
kesner sensory task & brain region
must go to novel object, nock over object not yet seen

lesions to extrastriate visual ctx
kesner tests reveal X of three brain regions
dorsal striatum
important for nondeclarative memory
right hippocampus and para hippocampal gyrus
spatial stimuli
left hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus
verbal stimuli
encoding episodic info depends on X portion of medial temporal
retrieval of episodic info depends on X portion of medial temporal
when listening to autobiographical passage, increase activation of
right frontal and temporal lobesstu
study of Drosophilia demonstrated X type learning
dorsolateral prefrontal system
required for object perminance
conditioning does / does not modify the simple arc reflex
does change
cell assembly
laterations in pattern of firing can encode meories

each neurons in ensemble may participate to greater or lesser extent

signature of activity pattern for each stored item
hebbian synapses, & continual firing
if close enough to continue to increase firing, then METABOLIC or STRUCTURAL changes in one or both take place to increase EFFICACY
fire together wire together
simultaneous firing
conditional learning
hebb & dual trace hypothesis
experience sets up activaiton of neural circuit that reverberates
hold for short period
if activation sufficient, activity in circuit causes a stable change
stable change corresponds to memory trace
in EC IC, EC animals exhibited
increase number of dendritic spines, particularly on basal dendrites
electrical activity of neurons promotes these dendritic extensions
how do filopodia form dendritic spine?
contact axon, activation of AMPA or NMDA receptors stabilizes
main inputs to hippocampal formation come from
entohinal ctx
main input to hippocamap formation come from entohinal ctx via
perforant pathway
drugs thata inhibit CaM kinase interfere with..
intermediate memory
long term depression LTP
lasting decrease in magnitude of response of neurons after afferent cells have been activated with electrical stimuli of low frequency
drugs that cause memory failure
mutation - long lasting difficulty w/ language
broca's patient exact location
inferior frontal left hemesphere
electrical stimulation of this part of brain results in speech arrest
anterior region
planum temporale
involved in language