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84 Cards in this Set

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vascular tissue
transports water, nurtrients, and other materials throughout the plant
What are the organs of the plants?
1)Roots
2) stems
3) leaves
4) flowers and cones (reproductive)
Meristematic tissue
plant cell division occurs in certain regions called meristems-produces new cells by mitosis-it is present in the apex of stems and roots, causing them to grow longer
apex
growing tips (of stems and roots)
cambium
meristem in woody plants-adds tissue to increase the thickness of stems and roots-growing region of the stem
what are the twoo types of cambium?
1) vascular
2) cork
vascular cambium
produces layers of tissues that transport H20 and nutrients
cork cambium
layer of protective tissue-protects the surface of woody stems and leaves
epidermis
the outer layor of leaves, green stems, and roots-usually one cell thick-cells fit tightly-almost clear cells allow maximum light-made by cutin
cutin
a waxy substance secreted from above ground parts that form a layer upon the epidermis
-1) cuts water loss
2) infection protection
what are the two types of vascular tissue?
xylem and phloem
what are the two types of xylem cells?
tracheids and vessel elements
what are the two types of phloem cells?
sieve cells and companion cells
xylem
conducts H20 and minerals from the soil up to the leaves-cells are dead and act as tubes-close to palisade layer (top)
phloem
conducts food and dissolved materials in both directions-close to the spongy layer (bottom)
fundamental tissue
used in the support of the plant and the production and storage of food
3 types of fundamental tissue
parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma
parenchyma tissue
unspecialized thin walled cells found:
1) in roots, fruits, and parts of stems
JOB: food storage
2) Leaves and young stems
JOB: make food through photosynthesis
collenchyma tissue
long, think, flexible cell walls support stems and leaves
schlerenchyma
very stiff, thick cell wall stiffness causes my lignin (what make cells so rigid)-mature cells have cell walls so thick that the cell interior space is almost closed up=plant fibers
primary roots
the first structure to emerge from a sprouting seed
secondary root
branches off of the primary root
taproot
the primary root is the largest root-the root is thick, fleshy, and rapid growing (one major root-ex. carrot)
fibrous
secondary roots are as large or larger than the primary root-lots of hairlike roots spreading out
what are 2 advantages of fibrous roots?
1) they hold soil, which helps prevent erosion
2) root hair increases surface area
what kind of relationship do microorganisms and roots have?
symbiotic relationship-godod for both organisms(ex. pea family)-frequently bacteria or fungi live with the roots of plants
-ex: bacteria live in nodules -attach to the roots-bacteria converts gaseous nitrogen into a form usable by the plant-nitrogen-fixing bacteria
herbaceous stems
-SOFT, green, juicy stems
-usually live one year=annual plant
-sometimes two years=biennial plant
woody stems
-thick, tough tissue=wood
-hard stems
-usually live three years of more=perennial plant
ex. tree
apical meristem
a group of undifferentiated cells that divide to produce increased length of stems and roots
describe the internal stricture of herbaceous stems
all tissues develop from apical meristems but the celluar organization depends on the type of plant
what are the two types of flowering plants
monocots and dicots
describe the epidermis of monocots
monocots have a protective epidermis that encloses a soft, green stem
cotyledon
the embryonic leaves within the seed
terminal bud
the tip of the twig
decribe the external structures of woody stems of a dormant twig in winter
at the terminal bud the apical meristem is enclosed by protective overlapping scales alled bud scales, which were produced the previous growing season
bud scale scars
scares left from where the bid falls off
distance between scars=1 year of growth
leaf scars
scars left when leaves fall off
vascular bundle scars
are located within the leaf scars of monocots
-contain xylem and phloem tissue
-help to identify the species of the plant
simple leaf
one leaf blade and one petiole
compound
multiple leaflet blades and one petiole
what are the three tissue types in leaves?
vascular, fundamental, and protective
what is at the base of a petiole?
an axillary bud
cuticle
waxy, outermost layer that:
1) protects the internal tissue
2) slows H20 loss
stomates
openings in the epidermis that are used for:
1) exchange of CO2 and O2
2) Removal of H20 vapor
-regulated by guard cells
photolysis
the splitting of water with the use of light
guard cells
cells that regulate stomates- controlled by osmosis pressure from roots
-2 crescent shaped calls with a thin outer edge and a thick inner edge, which causes cell to flex
-cells become swollen (turgid) and flex open
-cells lose H20, relax, and close
mesophyll
middle layer, between upper and lower edidermis-photosynthetic layer
palisade mesophyll
-major photosynthetic layer
-upper portion
-1 or 2 cells thick
-tall, tightly packed cells
-lots of chloroplasts
spongy mesophyll
-lower portion
-has air spaces
-loosely packed
-irregular shaped cells
-few chloroplasts
where are veins found?
in the mesophyll
transpiration
the evaporation of H20 vapor from plant surfaces-mostly through the stomates
what does active transport have to do with the way the stomates open and close?
active transport pumps in potassium, causing a solute imbalance. high k+ inside the cell causes water to flood in, opening the stomates. stop active transport, K+ levels decrease, resulting in the stomates closing
what are three ways of water transport?
capillary action, root pressure, and transpiration
water transport: capillary action
the tendency of a liquid to rise inside a narrow tube
distance: several centimeters
-little help
water transport: root pressure
-the osmotic pressure in the xylem of a root
distance: one meter
-not much help
water transport: transpiration
-due to hydrogen bonding among H20 molecules, as h20 vapor leaves a leaf it pulls a water molecule behind it
distance=tree top
translocation
the movement of dissolved mutrients/sugar through a plant-phloem only
what happens when there is high solute (food) concentration in the leaf?
water floods, which results in food molecules movement away from the leaf
what happens when there is low solute (food) concentrations in the stems and roots?
it causes food to leave these cells
what is the concentation gradient produced for food transport?
leaves=high pressure
other plant parts=low pressure
water with food will leave the phloem and enter low pressure areas
what are the three plant hormones?
auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinius
auxins
-stimulate cells to lengthen
-most common auxin-IAA
IAA
-indoleacetic acid
-produced in the terminal bud and sent down the stem
-prevents lateral bud growth
-away from IAA effect a lateral bud may develop into a new branch
abscission
-affected by auxins
-the process by which leaves, flowers, or fruits drop off plants
gibberellins
affect plant growth and the development of fruits and seeds distributed evenly throughout the plant
cytokinius
stimulate growth and cell division during seed germination
tropisms
the growth of a plant in a specific direction in response to a stimulus
positive tropism
movement towards a stimulus
negative tropism
movement away from a stimulus
phototropism
pos: stems grow towards the light
neg: stems grow away from the light
geotropism
pos: roots grow towards the pull of gravity
neg: roots grow away from the pull of gravity
*stems show neg. tropism
hydrotropism
pos: plants roots grow towards H20
thigmotropism
clinging roots and tendrils touch something and wrap around it
what may tropisms be the result of?
an uneven auxin distribution
nastic movement
plants respond to a stimulus but not related to the direction of the stimulus
ex. prayer plant
day: leaves open
night: leaves close
photoperiodism
plants respond to changes in the length of day or night
ex. short day plants, long day plants, day-neutral plants (unaffected by either day or night)
lenticels
tiny openings through the bark-allow air to enter and water to escape
root cap
true end of a root-a protective cover for the cells of the meristematic zone
meristematic zone
all cells of the root originate here. a zone of rapidly diving cells
maturation zone
-root hair zones
-where cells differentiate (unspecialzed cells-->specialized cells
heartwood
older xylem near the center of the stem no longer conducts water and instead becomes heartwood
sapwood
surrounds heartwood
-is active in fluid transport and therefore usually is lighter in color
what are the three important functions of stems?
1) produce leaves, branches, and flowers
2) hold leaves up in the sunlight
3) transport substances between roots and leaves
node/internode
node: where leaves are attached
internode: regions between nodes