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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
said that man has a place in nature. Invented "scala naturae" (scale of nature) where humans were at the highest end
said that only humans have a conscious, and that fossils were evidence of a past life which the Greek gods had killed. (Later, Christianity takes over and flourished since the offering of a good eternal life is attractive in a time of chaos)
Stoic philosophers
removed humans from Aristotle's scale, thought humans were above animals
Albertus Magnus
said that only humans have soul, which makes them divine
Sir Thomas Aquinas
came up with the "humunculous theory" which said that a human soul is inside the head of a sperm
Ernst Humuncle
theory that says god created earth and life, and that life is immutable (doesn't change) because life is perfect
theory of creationism
looked at Bible and estimated that life was formed 6,000 years ago
Bishop Wilberforce
said that species changed, but for the worst (called "degeneration"). He also thought earth was 70,000 years old, and was the first to stand up to the church and say his ideas
George Louis Buffon
the first to modify breeding to get certain results. Said there was some sort of historical connection between species, competition among species was important, and that species are formed (not just created as is)
Erasmus Darwin
geologist who said that the earth was always in constant (yet gradual and uniform) change, called "uniformitarianism." Also thought the earth was 1-2 million years old, and that change is very normal (direct conflict with creationism)
Charles Lyell
paleontologist who realized new (specialized) fossils were on top of the land and old (simple) fossils were on the bottom: links species as being as old as the earth and that organisms change as well as the earth
William Smith
realized species could go extinct and came up with the "Theory of Catastrophism" which said God could wipe out species (which explains fossils) and replace them with another species
George Cuvier
came up with first systematic theory of evolution called "Inheritence of acquired characteristics" (giraffe theory). Thought species went from a-b-c-d (called orthogenesis)
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
wrote book about geometric growth of a population which said that populations grow at a faster rate than resources). However, didn't account for population keeping in check through death or natural selection). Idea influenced Darwin
Thomas Malthus
came up with the exact same theory of natural selection than Darwin did, but didn't get credit because of his death
Alfred Russel Wallace
"Darwin's Bulldog" who debated for Darwin and established a nasty reputation. Said that birds were glorified versions of dinosaurs
Thomas Henry Huxley
"Father of Genetics" who knew why there was variation in species (came up with the Punnet Square) but did not know about mutations. He sent Darwin this info but it was not opened until 20 years later!
Gregor Mendel
came up with "Theory of Mutation" explaining how some genes change
Hugo Devnies
Theory that combined Darwin's ideas and Mendel's ideas to explain evolution. Said that evolution was very slow/gradual and at a constant rate (not true)
Neo-Darwinism/ Gradual Theory of Speciation
came up with "Theory of Puncuated Equilibrium" which says there are periods of rapid evolution and periods where nothing happens (only true sometimes)
Stephen Jay Gould and Niles and Eldredge
2 theories combined that say that the rapid evolution occurs when the environment drastically changes. Then there are slow gradual changes. This fast and slow pace switches off
Neo-Darwinism + Theory of Puncuated Equilibrium
this is a test