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75 Cards in this Set

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Benificial Bacteria
Lactobacillus- vigina and intestins
S. epidermidis - skin
Virulence vs Pahtogonicity
Quantitative vs Qualitative ability to cause disease
Virulence factors
-antipagocytic capsule e.g. S. pneumonia
-exotoxin e.g. S. pyogenes
-endotoxin (LPS)
- Pilli adhesive e.g. Nesseria
-adhesive capsules e.g. on teeth
-enzymes, lecithinase in C. Perfringes
Lysoginistic conversion
phagocyte puts DNA in Bacteria and it stays there for a few generations before making more virusis (Lysogeny) and the new DNA is expressed by the bacteria
arthropod borne diseases
carried by insects etc.
e.g. lyme disease, west nile, etc.
dysentary
condition- abdominal pain
bloody diarrhea
nosocomial infections
aquired during hospitalization
Crown gall disease
Agrobacterium tumefacieus - places T DNA from plasmid into plant cell DNA causeing growth and division making tumor
Rizobia
Fixes N2, 78% of environment, uses Nitrogenase, lugumes
cyanobacterium
can fix N2
NO2-
NO3-
Nitrite and Nitrate can be used by plants
Cheese
Milk + starter culture (L. cremoris or L. lactis) + rennet/rennin (enzyme) (ripened cheese only)
curds+ whey
Press and mature
hard-parmeasan, soft- brie
additional cheese fermentation
- Limburger- brevibacteria
- Swiss- Propiombacterium
Yogurt
starter culture - Streptococcus thermophilus
added- Lactobacillus bulgarious
fermentation

if sachromyses is also added you get kefir
preservation
reduction in
pH
water activity
sugar concentration
probiotic
bacteria added to food not needed for production but its good for you e.g. lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium, or L. casei
N2 in the atmosphere ->
Organic nitrogen in plants through nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium or Anabaena
Organic nitrogen in plants ->
-Organic N in Consumers
-and then/or to NH3 or NH4+ through ammonification (decomposition)
NH3 ->
NO2-, through nitrification by lithotrophs
NO2-, ->
NO3-, nitrification
NO3-, ->
uptaken by plants (back to start)
or it goes back to NO2- by pseudomonas, back to N2 by alcaligenes (Denitrification)
Nitrogen Cycle
Metabolism
Anaerobic reperation: NO3- -> NO2- -> N2 (reductions) (Dentrification)
Chemoautotrophy: NH4+ -> NO2- (by Nitorsomonas) -> NO3- (by Nitrobacter)
S elemental sulfer ->
SO4 2-, by sulfer oxidation, By photoautotrophic bacteria (Chromatium) or by chemoautotrophy (Thiobacillus)
SO4 2- (sulfate)->
uptake by plants then to H2S by decomposition
or Sulfate reduction to H2S by anaerobic resporation (e.g. Desulfovibrio)
H2S (sulfate) ->
Elemental Sulfer S by
- spontaneous oxidation OR
- H2S oxidation by photoautotrophy (Chramatium) or chemoautotrophic (Thiobacillus)
Fermented Vegtables
Saurkraut - bacteria on Cabbage ferment + Leuconostoc plantarum
kimchi - asian cabbage
pickles - fermented cucumber
natto - soybeans
sourdough
lactobaccilius and yeast
Fermented Meats
Starter culture = Pediococcus
Pepperoni
salami
country ham
bologna
Pasture
tried to figure out why wine -> vinegar
bacteria (acetobacter)
pasturized grape juice (heated it)
ad to add back yeast
MSG
Monosodium glutamate, asian food, made by Corynebacterium glutamicum
Xanthan gum
bacterial slime, found in lots of stuff, creats texture, made by Xanthomonas campestris
selective toxicity
toxic to pathogens not to humans
selective target
organell or trait etc pathogen has that human cells dont. eg 70s ribosome
Penecillin
dystroys peptidoglycan bonds (beta-lactam)
gram +
used for Staph, Strep, Nisseria
Made from Penicillium
Nucleic acid synthesis
no RNA polyerease in humans can be used as a selective target
Efficiancy
diameter / unit of anti-biotics
bactericidal vs. bacteriostatic
kills vs. stops growth
Triclosan
anti microbial
TMV
tobacco Mosaic virus
first virus discovered
by Beijerinch
it was filterable (went through filter)
1nm
10^-9m
shapes (7)
cubic symmetry- icosahedral (20ish sides)
sperical - herpes
helical- TMV
Pleomorphic - influenza
rhabdovirus (bullet shaped) - rabies
complex - phage
filamentous - ebola
structure
single or double stranded DNA OR RNA IN A "CAPSID" (nucleocapsid)
spikes on outside of capsid OR on outside of membrane (envelope) outside of capsid. Capsomeres = single capsid proteins
Lysogenic cycle
Phage DNA becomes part of Bacteria DNA and stays there for a few generations (some can do lytic and lysogenic called temperate phages e.g. Lambda phage, some can only do lytic called virulent phages e.g. T-even phage)
Animal viruses
1) recognition
2) attachment
3) penetration
4) uncoating (Nucleic acid out of capsid)
5) synthesis
6) assembly
7) release
receptor
place were virus attaches, spikes fit into these receptors
MIC vs. MBC
Minimum inhibitory conentration - how much is needed to stop growth
minimum bactericidal concentration - how much is needed to kill bacteria
noninvasive
not tending to spread
nodule
created by Rhizobium on plant roots so that they can fix N in not 21% O2 conditions
CH4
methane created by anaerobic digestion by methanobacterium/methanococcus
secondary water treatment (4 options)
Active sludge: aerated and bacteria are added to break down sewage
Trickling filter: sewege is "trickled" over rocks & gavel which become covered with a bio film of bacteria to break down sewage
Lagoons: water is placed in artificial ponds bacteria breaks down sewage, cyanobacteria and algea e.g. spirulina make O2
Artificial wetlands: same as lagoons + an animal habitat
bioremediation
use of bacteria and fungi to degrade or detoxify pollutants in a given environment
Xenobiotics
synthetic compounds to different from environment to be broken down quickly
sulfer bacteria
photoautotrophic bacteria that helps in H2S oxidation
bioleaching
metal -> soluble form by oxidation by bacteria
symbiont
organism that is part of a symbiosis
Other fermented foods
Black tea
coffee
cocoa bean
sour cream
antiseptic
disinfectant (chemical used to destroy microbes and viruses) mild enough to be used on skin
Types of disinfectant (3)
Quaternary ammonium compound: disinfectant used on food preperation surfaces
Phenolic compounds: antimicrobial e.g. triclosan
Halogens: disinfectant or antiseptic e.g. chlorine
Flemming
Found penicillan, the first antibiotic
Ehrlich
discovered the first antimicrobial drug, salvarsan
Narrow spectrumvs. broad spectrum
Can be used for some bacteria Vs. can be used for many bacteria
Sufa drugs
structuraly similar to para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) inhibits enzyme which creates folic acid biosynthesis in the cell. enzyme is not present in humans
beta-latamase
enzyme that creates resistance to beta-lactam drugs
fluoroquinolone
inhibits bacteria by atacking supercoil of the dna
R-factor plasmids
resistance DNA
autoclave
sterilizes stuff with pressurised steam, endospores also killed
ciprofloxacin
stops Bacterial DN replication by dystroying an important enzyme
Lister
discovered the idea of using antiseptics on wounds to stop infection
Phages have that others dont
Phages in host
O
I - Tail
M - Tail fibers

Prophage
viron
a virus in its extracellular form
induction
virus DNA leaves host DNA during lysogenic cycle
Positive and negitive strand virus
viruses that use different DNA strands neg- strand used for rna transcription
receptor-mediated endocytosis
allows cell to bring in what has bound to receptor e.g. virus
Stanley
Christalized TMV
Chlamydia
bad bacterial STD
Rickettsia
Virus causing Rocky mountin spotted fever