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42 Cards in this Set

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Griffith/Hershey-Chase
Scientists that figured out that genetic material was DNA/nucleic acids. Used to think it was protein.
Watson & Crick
Scientists that figured out was DNA looked like in the 50's: Double-stranded helix, sugar-phosphate backbone.
DNA replication
Important for cell reproduction
Transcription
Making RNA from DNA. In eukaryotic cells, it happens in the nucleus; in prokaryotic, cytoplasm.
rRNA
Made in nucleolus; staples amino acids togehter; come together to make ribosomes.
mRNA
Copy of the gene from the DNA (difference: entrons removed, single stranded), blueprint for protein.
tRNA
Brings the right amino acid into place (read in triplets).
Translation
Making protein from mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes.
Dictionary of genetic code
Code in which every set of three RNA bases (A,U,G,C) call for a specific amino acid.
Naked tRNA
tRNA with no amino acid attached
Charged tRNA
tRNA with amino acid attached.
Modification of protein
In ER. Add 2 chains together; add iron atom; cut off part of chain
Transport of protein (Where)
Golgi apparatus (Packaging and modification)
Mendel
1860's; father of genetics
Mendel's principles
Segregation, independent assortment
Segregation
Separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Independent assortment
During meiosis; random process, crossing over, mutations
Mendel's pea plant
Showed interaction in complete dominance
Allele
Various form of a gene at a given location
Homozygous
Two alleles that are the same.
Heterozygous
Two different alleles
Phenotype
The outward appearance of an organism.
Genotype
What the DNA looks like (alleles)
Mendel's experiments
Cut off stamens of pea plants to cross pollinate.
Punnet Square
Used to determine phenotypic and genotypic outcomes in offspring.
Incomplete dominance
One gene does not completely mask the other (human hair curliness, snapdragon: red+white = pink)
Multiple alleles
Codominance (Blood type: A,B,O)
Polygenic traits
Traits which involve many genes (skin color, eye color, height) True of Most Traits.
Pleiotropy
Point mutation. Only one gene is off, causing several effects (sickle-cell disease).
How environment affects genes
Affects phenotype.
Stress, malnutrition = don't reach max height.
Sun exposure = melanin.
Puberty = production of testosterone and estrogen.
Controls of gene expression
In cells, only certain genes are activated. Ex. insulin gene made in pancreas and not eye lens.
Genetic disorders (meiosis and mitosis)
Nondisjunction (meiosis) and cancer (mitosis)
Fetal testing (2 types)
Amniocentosis (wk 11-12); Chorionic villus biopsy (wk 9)
DNA technology
Using DNA and genes for our benefit
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
Amplifies DNA to make more copies using enzymes found in bacteria that live in hot springs.
DNA fingerprints
Run DNA on gel after cutting DNA using restriction enzymes
RFLP
DNA fragments specific to one person
Gel electrophoresis
Separates DNA fragments in gel.
Plasmid
Special mobile chromosome found in bacteria, used for putting human genes in bacteria DNA to reproduce.
Clones (purpose)
Replicate desirable traits; make parts that can be put in humans
Stem cells
Cells that can become anything. Purpose - to grow whole new organs (replace damaged ones).
8-Cell stage
Onmipotent: any cell(s) can break off to create identical twin.