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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
adaptation
characteristic that confers higher fitness: a trait maintained as a result of Natural selection
allele
one of two or more alternative expressions of a gene
amino acids
basic constituents of proteins
artificial selection
the culling out of individuals with heritable traits by humans to serve human purposes
chromosome
a gene-carrying structure composed of DNA and packing proteins
chromosome inversions
a part of the chromosome switches around within the chromosome
codons
a triplet sequence of messenger RNA nucleotides; each codon triplet specifies a particular amino acid to be placed in forming a protein
crossing over:
the exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes when they are synapsed during meiosis
diploid
full normal number of characteristic somatic cell chromosomes, represented "2n"
DNA
deoxynucleic acid; a double helix of nucleotides that constitute the hereditary material of the cell; the agent of inheritance and cell metabolism; transcribes RNA
domestication
artificial selection
gamete
a male or female sex cell; sperm or egg
gene
the unit of inheritance affecting the characteristics ofa trait; a section of DNA that codes for a particular protein through an RNA intermediate
Genetic code
DNA, translated into protein through mRNA
adaptation
characteristic that confers higher fitness: a trait maintained as a result of Natural selection
allele
one of two or more alternative expressions of a gene
amino acids
basic constituents of proteins
artificial selection
the culling out of individuals with heritable traits by humans to serve human purposes
chromosome
a gene-carrying structure composed of DNA and packing proteins
chromosome inversions
a part of the chromosome switches around within the chromosome
codons
a triplet sequence of messenger RNA nucleotides; each codon triplet specifies a particular amino acid to be placed in forming a protein
crossing over:
the exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes when they are synapsed during meiosis
diploid
full normal number of characteristic somatic cell chromosomes, represented "2n"
DNA
deoxynucleic acid; a double helix of nucleotides that constitute the hereditary material of the cell; the agent of inheritance and cell metabolism; transcribes RNA
domestication
artificial selection
gamete
a male or female sex cell; sperm or egg
gene
the unit of inheritance affecting the characteristics ofa trait; a section of DNA that codes for a particular protein through an RNA intermediate
Genetic code
DNA, translated into protein through mRNA
adaptation
characteristic that confers higher fitness: a trait maintained as a result of Natural selection
allele
one of two or more alternative expressions of a gene
amino acids
basic constituents of proteins
artificial selection
the culling out of individuals with heritable traits by humans to serve human purposes
chromosome
a gene-carrying structure composed of DNA and packing proteins
chromosome inversions
a part of the chromosome switches around within the chromosome
codons
a triplet sequence of messenger RNA nucleotides; each codon triplet specifies a particular amino acid to be placed in forming a protein
crossing over:
the exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes when they are synapsed during meiosis
diploid
full normal number of characteristic somatic cell chromosomes, represented "2n"
DNA
deoxynucleic acid; a double helix of nucleotides that constitute the hereditary material of the cell; the agent of inheritance and cell metabolism; transcribes RNA
domestication
artificial selection
gamete
a male or female sex cell; sperm or egg
gene
the unit of inheritance affecting the characteristics ofa trait; a section of DNA that codes for a particular protein through an RNA intermediate
Genetic code
DNA, translated into protein through mRNA
genotype
the genetic makeup of an individual
heterozygous
two different alleles carried for a trait
haploid
half the normal number of somatic cell chromosomes, represented 1n
homozygous
the same alleles carried for a trait
homeotic (HOX)mutations
hox genes decide whwere and how our body is produced. A mutation in the Hox gene can make body parts appear in different parts.
Linkage
linked genes travel together during meiosis always inherited together. Example: fruit flies eye color and wing length
locus
the particular site along a chromosome occupied by an allele
meiosis
cell division resulting in haploid gametes for sexual reproduction
mitosis
cell division resulting in diploid cells
mutation
a spontaneous error in mistake in DNA duplication, leading to change in the genome
Phenotype
outward appearnce of all traits, expression of genotype
Pleiotrophy
when we fin d a gene, doesn't combine for one trait. one gene affects a # of different characteristics. Doesn't control just one trait. one gene= multiple traits.
Point mutation
Changes bases: this changes codons, possibly affecting amino acids; can occur through substitutions, deletions or insertion
Polygenic
many genes affect that trait. one trait= many genes.
Polyploidy
whole sets of chromosomes added/duplicated. Diploid # may double to form tetraploid.
meiosis
cell division resulting in haploid gametes for sexual reproduction