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10 Cards in this Set

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The males don't defend the territory but instead try to detect receptive females as soon as poss. & will mate with them b4 others arrive.
ex: heliconia butterfly
Scramble Competition Polygyny
example of a shift in the operational sex ratio
females are able to store the sperm for weeks or even years in their genitalia
ex. honey bee
sperm storage and competition
are nocturnal cave dwelling birds. It is the only avian species that navigates by echolocation. They live in deep caves, and the temperature is too cold for eggs to hatch without constant parental incubation. The female birds stay in the cave for as long as 120 days, relying entirely on the males to bring food to her...ex of mate ass. hypothesis
Oil birds
South American monkeys living on the treetops of the forest canopy. To prevent the juveniles from falling from the trees, the males must assume the responsibility for carrying them. The females’ parental responsibility is to is to produce milk and to nurse the young. Because of the hardship of treetop living, females have no energy to care for the young. This relationship ensures monogamy...ex of mate ass. hypothesis
Teetee Monkey
proposes that to prevent females from mating with other males, a male will follow a female to ensure the he is the father of her offspring. Mate guarding is usually due to the shortage of receptive fremales
ex: crown shrimp males remain close to the receptive females after their encounter
mate guarding hypothesis
states that without the male to provide parental care, the young will not survive with only female parental care.
mate assistance hypothesis
Size can be up 1.5 meter in length, weighing over 220 kg (440 lbs.)
They have life span of 30-40 years
Use a reproductive method known as broadcast spawning annually
They first discharge sperm
Thirty minutes later, one hundred million unfertilized eggs are released in one splurge
Giant Clam
has been quoted in the Guinness Book of Record to be the most abundant fish on the planet. They are a remarkable fish with their success being able to produce a huge number of eggs.

They travel in vast schools of tens of thousands of individuals
They avoid predation by forming a highly coordinated school, with thousands of fish behaving as a single unit
Annual spawn in the fall along shallow shores
Females lay 30,000 eggs each, which are then fertilized by males releasing sperm
Atlantic Herring
Over 120 million on the island
On every November during the last quarter of the moon when there is the least difference between high and low tide, million of crabs lay their eggs in the water
Each crab lays 100,000 eggs
Eggs hatch and develop in the sea
Swept back to land as tiny crabs
Christmas Island Land Crab