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43 Cards in this Set

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a way of gathering and testing info used by many people, but especially in science
scientific method
measurable observation
objective
observer-specific observation
subjective
description of steps in a scietific investigation
protocol
the part of the experiment in which all factos are the same as the test group, except that the factor being tested is left in its normal, unmanipulated state
control
the variable being manipulated; the "cause"
independent variable
the variable whose results are being tested; the "effect"
dependent variable
Why was a control used for the Microbe experiment?
To be sure that the bacteria growing were from the sampled environment
cells with true nuclei and membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotes
unicellular organisms that lack membrane-bound organelles and a nucleus
prokaryotes
when bacteria convrt nitrogen from the atmosphere into forms that can be used by plants
nitrogen fixation
bacteria are _______________ because they break down dead plants and animals, and thereby return the organic material to the system to be used by other organisms.
decomposers
a type of autrophic bacteria that use light as their energy source
photosynthetic bacteria
bacteria that obtain their energy from the oxidation of inorganic substances
chemosynthetic bacteria
How are photosynthetic bacteria different from plants?
they lack chloroplasts, they do not use water as a source of electrons for their photosynthetic process, and their photosynthetic pigments are different in structure
rod-shaped bacteria
bacilli
small spheres of bacteria
cocci
corkscrew-shaped bacteria
spirilla
cyanobacteria is also called ____________________
blue-green algae
How are cyanobacteria different from other photosynthetic prokaryotes?
they posses chlorophyll a and use water in their photosynthetic process, producing oxygen
Gloeocapsa
clumps of green unicellular form cyanobacteria surrounded by a gelatinous sheath
Oscillatoria
filaments of the Colonial form of cyanobacteria
eukaryotic, heterotrophic, generally multicellular, but still microscopic and often found on bacterial cultures
Fungi
an easily viewed fungi found on grains and fruits
yeasts (Saccharomyces)
bacteria that forms 2-3 mm wide, moist-looking colonies that are opaque off-white or sometimes yellow
Stephylococcus
bacteria that forms tiny colonies less than 1 mm wide, transparent, and barely off-white in color
streptococcus
eukaryotic, heterotrophic, generally multicellular, but still microscopic and often found on bacterial cultures
Fungi
an easily viewed fungi found on grains and fruits
yeasts (Saccharomyces)
bacteria that forms 2-3 mm wide, moist-looking colonies that are opaque off-white or sometimes yellow
Stephylococcus
bacteria that forms tiny colonies less than 1 mm wide, transparent, and barely off-white in color
streptococcus
eukaryotic, heterotrophic, generally multicellular, but still microscopic and often found on bacterial cultures
Fungi
tiny hair-like structures made of microtubules that often cover the entire surfaces of cells. Used for locomotion in paramecium.
cilia
composed of microtubules (like cilia) but are much longer and beat in a wave-like manner. Can be found in Euglena and Volvox
flagella
form of motility in which cells use false feet which extend from the body and then pull the rest of the cell along. microtubules act to anchor and pull cell structures during movement
pseudopodia movement
a complex carbohydrate polymer in cell walls
cellulose
unique double membrane-bound organelles
plastids
cellular shrinkage occurring as a result of a cell being exposed to a hypertonic solution
plasmolysis
plantae kingdom, has a cell wall and moving chloroplasts (cytoplasmic streaming), vacuoles
elodea
implies that chloroplasts, along with mitochondria, were once themselves prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by and, through evolutionary processes, developed a symbiotic relationship with their host cells
endysymbiont theory
belongs to the Division (Chlorophyta) which is the most complex representative of colonial green algae. cells outside it are biflagellate. outer cells are connected by cytoplasmic strands and entire colony is surrounded by a thin mucilaginous layer. reproductive cells produce daughter colonies
Volvox
unicellular organism with both plant and animal characteristics. Contains chlorophyll a and b, but not completely autotrophic
euglena
allows you to view plasmolysis because the vacuoles shrink
onion cell
easy to obtain, feature prominent nuclei, form a protective layer, little extracellular material b/t cells
human epithelial cells