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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sponges (porifera) have how many tissue layers?
two; ectoderm(epidermis) and endoderm (gastrodermis) also hae mesoglea
Flatworms (platyhelminthes) have how many tissue layers?
three; ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm (form true muscles)
Nematodes have how many tissue layers? and what kind of cavity do they have?
3, same as flatworm;have pseudocoelom, cavity other than digestive cavity but muscles are only associated w/ body wall and not gut
what are planarians?
freshwater flatworms, move by cilia on ventral surface, everts their pharynx to eat, are photoactic, and flow against stream (rheotaxis)
what is a hydrostatic skeleton?
trapped water that serves as strucutral support and provides something for muscles to pull against for movement
what is the anatomy of a male ascaris (round worm)?
males have a curved posterier
what is the anatomy of a female ascaris (round worm)?
vaginal opening is 1/3 of the way towards the posterior, larger than males, genital organs in a Y shape, two arms are uteri, and base is the vagina
What are annelids?
segmented worms that are excellent burrowers; has 3 classes: polychaeta, oligochaeta, and hirundinea(leeches)
what is the anatomy of the earthworm?
Cuticle made of a chitinous layer, has both circular and longitudinal muscle, innermost layer is the peritoneum, three layered intestine,
what does the typhlosole of the earthworm do?
increase surface area.
describe the nervous system of the earthworm.
has a ventral nerve cord, dorsal margin has three giant fibers that conduct the messages signaling simultaneous contractions in all segments
how do the earthworms move?
produce sinusoidal waves along the legnth of the body, muscles contract in groups, producing shortening and extending
what are the first successful group of terrestrial animals?
Arthropods; they are the most dominant phylum
which antenna of the pill bug is used for exploration?
the second; first is vestigal(degenerated strucutre)
what is thigmotaxis?
a response to tactile stimulation, ie. legs of sow bug must touch something
what is the telson of a sow bug(isopod)?
tail area
what is the Molluscan basic body type?
unsegmented and soft with and epithelial mantle that secretes a calcareous shell, and anterior head and ventral foot(head foot), dorsal visceral body mass, and a mantle cavity containing the ctenidia
describe the clam.
Bivalve; waterpumping and filtering organisms,
what is an umbo?
oldest part of the shell in a bivalve
describe class polypacophora
chitons; cling onto rocks in the interdial zone, has an extensive foot and lacks tentacles or sensory organs on the head (molusca)
describe class gastropoda
snails; characterized by a spiral shell and torsion, where the body twists 180 degrees with reference to head and foot, has an operculum which blocks the shell opening (gastropoda)
what is an operculum?
a tough doorlike strucutre that blocks the shell opening, protects head and foot when inside the shell
describe the class cephalopoda
squid and octopi; have large head and eyes, has a developed brain and central nervous system, eight or ten arms sucking discs, moves rapidly, have a closed circulatory system (mollusc)
what defenses do squids(cephalopoda) have?
saliva has poisons, has an ink sac(next to rectum) that distracts predators, pigment cells that change color, are agile, and have good sense of sight
describe squid intercourse.
sperm is ejaculated and transferred to female by the male's specialized arm. Female estrudes eggs thru her funnel and fertilizes them. eggs are protected by secretions and then placed below tidelines on rocks.
what is the ctenidium?
feathery gills of squid, place where blood is oxygenated
what are the nidamental glands?
secrete the outer capsules of the egg masses
what are echinoderms?
entirely marine, highly specialized animals, include starfish, sea urchins, sandollars, sea cuumbers, etc.
describe the anatomy of a starfish (piaster)
five rays and a central disc. mouth on the bottom, anus on aboral surface
where is the madreporite on a starfish?
located at the junction of two discs
where are the eyespots located on the sea star
at the tips of the discs, may curl up to sense light
what is the ambulacral groove?
groove down the middle of each ray, has two rows of soft thin tubes at the feet
what happens during feeding of a seastar?
starfish everts its stomach through its mouth and inserts it into the open bivalve shell. food goes to stomach where its digested by disgestive glands, therefore anus and intestine are reduced
describe the vascular system of a sea star
s ahepd tube that connects the madreporite to the ring canal. ring canal connects to many tube feet and a small sac (ampulla) which is above the groove.
describe class asteroidea
sea stars; oral surface is ventral, madreporite is oral,
describe class holothuroidea
sea cucumber; bilateral symmetry; are suspension feeders, feed on animals and plants, they are chief scaventers of the oceans bottom, has no arm, spne, pedicellariae, and exoskeleton
describe the class ophiuroidea
echinoderm, brittle stars, central disc with jointed limbs attached, lack anus and pedicellariae
describe class echinoidea
sea urchins and sand dollars; herbivores,tube feet are long and slender,large gut
describe class crinoidea
sea lillies and feather stars; stalked and flowerlike, has a cuplike central disc (calyx)
describe class concentricycloidea
sea daisies; just discovered in 1986, only echinoderm where water vascular system has two ring canals and than in grooves radiating out from the center
describe the subphylum cephalochordata (chordate)
includes animals w/o backbones and complex vertebrates, all have a notohord, pharyngeal gill slits, and a dorsal, tubular nerve cord. ex. branchiostoma (Amphioxus)
describe the subphylum vertebrata (chordate)
has a complex endoskeleton that protects internal organs, provides structure, and attachment centers for skeletal muscles
what are appendicular skeleton?
include limb and limb girdles
what are axial skeletons?
include skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum