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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Meiosis
The reproduction of sex cells
Allele
Different forms of a gene
Phenotype
Physical traits
Genotype
Genetic information
Homozygous
Having 2 of the same alleles, either 2 dominant (DD) or 2 recessive (dd)
Heterozygous
Having 2 different alleles (Dd)
Dominant allele
Presence of this allele determines the phenotype
Recessive allele
Need to have 2 alleles present to have the phenotype
Adaptation
A change that allows a species to survive in their environment. --> Change in population over time.
Asexual reproduction
A means of reproduction in which one well splits into two, usually identical, daughter cells
Binary fission
Mitosis of prokaryotic cells in which the two daughter cells are exact replicas of the parent cell
Cytoplasm
The area of a cell inside the membrane and outside the nucleus containing jelly-like cytosol which contains all the organelles
Cytosol
Protein-rich, jelly-like fluid in which a cell's organelles that are outside the nucleus are immersed.
Evolution
Any genetic based phenotypic change in a population over successive generations, with such modifications sometimes resulting in new species.
Exocytosis
RIdding organism of waste through fusing vacuole to plasma membrane
Phagocytosis
A process of bringing relatively large materials into a cell by means of wrapping extensions of the plasma membrane around the materials to be brought in and fusing the ends together
Protista
Domain of organisms consisting of those which are eukaryotic but do not have all the defining characteristics of either plant, animal, or fungus
Protozoa
Protist; Paramecium in one kind.
Ecological niche
A terrestrial habitat in which an organism lives
Cuticle
A part of the plant that regulates water flow in and out of the plant.
Natural selection
A process in which the differential adaptation of organisms to their environment selects those traits that will be passed on with greater frequency from one generation to the next.
Convergent evolution
Plants have similar structures and habitats but are found in different parts of the world
Gene pool
The entire collection of alleles in a population
Environment
The complex of biotic and abiotic factors that act upon an organism and ultimately determine its form and survival
Biome
An ecosystem dominated by a large vegetation formation, whose boundaries are largely determined by climate. The same biome type can occur on two different continents and have different species, but they will bear striking similarities
Spore
Used for reproduction for plants in water environments
Seed
Used for reproduction of plants not in water environments
Herbivore
An animal that eats plants
Carnivore
An animal that eats other animals/ meat
Omnivore
An animal that eats both meat and plants
Detritivore (Decomposer)
An organism that feeds on the remains of dead organisms or the cast-off materials from living organisms
Predation
One organism feeding on parts of all of a secondary organism
Elicitor
To draw forth or bring out, a chemical compound that does so
Species diversity
The range of different species within a community
Food web
A bunch of food chains, showing the flow of energy between species
Trophic structure
The way an ecosystem's food chain or web is set up, with each level defined by a transfer of energy from one kind of organism to another. Plants and other photosynthesizers are first level, herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores make up the second and third levels
Competitive exclusion principle
Two populations that compete for the same resources. Over time, one population will thrive, causing the other to be excluded
Interspecific interactions
Competition among different species
Keystone species
A species whose impact on the composition of a community is large, relative to its abundance within that community
Climate
The average course or condition of the weather at a place usually over a period of years as exhibited by temperature, wind velocity, and precipitation
Abiotic factor
Non-living things that influence populations, such as weather, temperature, geography, and elevation
Biotic factor
Other species that influence populations, such as predators or a lack of autotrophs
Ecosystem
A community of living things and the physical environment with which they interact
Biodiversity
The diversity of living things. Includes species diversity, diversity of distributions, and genetic diversity
Niche
A characterization of an organism's way of making a living that includes its habitat, food, and behavior.