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42 Cards in this Set

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mitosis prepares for ___
cytokinesis
G1/2-
S-
-Gap 1/2
-Synthesis
phase where majority of cellular activity for the functions of a cell occurs
G1phase
Many cell-specific proteins and other molecules are produced for the metabolism of the cell during ___
G1 phase
during ___, the DNA composing the chromosomes is duplicated
S phase
chromosmal DNA strands
chromatids
sister chromatids are attached at a ___
centromere
at the end of ___ each chromosome consists of an identical pair of chromtatids
S phase
How long does mitosis last?
less than 10% of the cell cycle
How long does the cell cycle last?
10-30 hours
___, such as ___, may spend more then 10% on mitosis
-dividing cells
-rapidly growing tissues
___, such as ___, may rarely enter the M phase
-static cells
-bone cells or neurons
cytokinesis begins in ___ and conludes in ___
telophase, G1 phase
cytokinesis is highly variable in ___
length and timing
___, such as ___, may undergo mitosis without cytokinesis and produce multinucleic cells
-tissues
-striated muscle fibers and some algal filaments
what are the main goals of mitosis?
-separates genetic material
-reconstitutes a nucleus to house each set
two microtubule organizing centers
centrioles
an axis of proteinaceous microtubules between centrioles
polar fibers
a bridge of mcrotubules that extend between centrioles
mitotic spindle (spindle apparatus)
a complex of proteins that bind to the centromere
kinetochore
attach to each chromosome's kinetochore
kinetochore fibers
at poles of the cell, the centrioles radiate ___ outward in addition to the spindle apparatus
an array of microtubules
the array of microtubules brace the centrioles against the ___
cell membrane
the arrangement of micortubules radiating from a centriole
aster
plant cells lack ___, but ___ still form between opposite points of the cell
-centrioles and asters
-spindle fibers
animal cell that are deprived of ___ will still form a spindle apparatus. chromosomes will eventually distribute themselves on the spindle apparatus and are moved and separated to opposite poles
centrioles
the vegetative cells of many organisms such as fungi are ___ rather than ___
-haploid
-diploid
events in interphase
-DNA replicates and begins to condense
-centrioles are replicated in animal cells
events in prophase
-the mitotic spindle begins to form
-polar and kinetochore fibers comprise he mitotic spindle
-chromosomes continue to condense
events in metaphase
-the chromosomes align on a plane in the center of the cell
events in anaphase
-the sister chromatids separate
events in telophase
-mitotic apparatus disassembles
-cytokinesis begins
cytokinesis in animal includes formation of a ___ that begins on the periphory of the cell, pinches inward, and eventually divides the cytoplasm of two cells
cleavage furrow
___ are commonly cultured fish whose eggs and early developmental stages undergo rapid cell division (as do all embryonic cells)
whitefish
an early embryonic stage of a vertebrate which consists of a sphere of 25-10 cells with a high frequency of different mitotic stages
blastula
our model to study cellular replication in plants is the root tip of ___
Allium (onion)
root tips of plants contain ___ which are localized areas of rapid cell division due to active growth at the root tips
meristems
in plant cells, cytokinesis includes formation of a partition called a ___ that is perpindiculat to the axis of the spindle apparatus
cell plate
the cell plate forms in ___ and grows out to the ___ and will separate the two cells
-middle of the cell
-periphery
what region of a root has the most mitotic activity?
meristems
why is pinching of the cytoplasm inadequate for cytokinesis in plant cells?
the cell wall would stay intact
what is the volume of the two new cells formed by mitosis to a mature cell?
same volume