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84 Cards in this Set

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interventricular sulcus
diagonal groove between the walls of the 2 lower heart chambers (ventricles).
along the groove of the interventricular sulcus is the
anterior interventricular artery and the great cardiac vein
auricles
flap-like pouches of atria
aorta
largest artery of the body
aortic arch
formed by aorta
pulmonary artery
leaves the heart as a single thing but branches into left and right pulmonary arteries
superior and inferior vena cava
interact with right atrium
apex
lower point of heart
atria
upper left and right chambers with thin walls
ventricles
lower left and right chambers. tick walls
interventricular septum
separates left and right ventricles
cuspid valves
also called atrioventricular valves, ensure one-way flow of blood from atria into ventricles
mitral bicuspid valve
left AV valve, has two cusps
tricuspid valve
right AV valve, 3 cusps
chordae tendineae
attaches AV valves to ventricle
papillary muscles
projections from ventricular myocardium attached to chordae tendineae
The respiratory tract consists of
the nose and nasal cavity, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Ventilation
includes respiratory cycles of inspiration
nose
external cartilage and bone forming wall of nasal cavity
nasal septum
wall dividing into left and right sides
nares
opening from nasal cavity into pharynx
hard palate
floor of nasal cavity
conchae
three curved ridges from each wall of the cavity
paranasal sinuses
air-filled, mucus-lined
nasal septum
wall dividing into left and right sides
nares
opening from nasal cavity into pharynx
hard palate
floor of nasal cavity
conchae
three curved ridges from each wall of the cavity
paranasal sinuses
air-filled, mucus-lined
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils
Monocytes
very large agranular with large, visible nuclei
Lymphocytes
agranular WBC, almost as small as RBC. very large nuclei
Neutrophils
granular with small, pink granules and sausage-link nuclei
Eosinophils
red granules and two lobed, dark nuclei
Basophils
fewer and bluish granules, multiple sizes. large, 2-lobed or kidney-shaped nuclei
Normal blood levels
Male 40 - 54
Female 38 - 47
Chronic infections
High monocytes and basophils
Antibody reactions
High lymphocytes
Acute infections
High neutrophils
Basophils
fewer and bluish granules, multiple sizes. large, 2-lobed or kidney-shaped nuclei
Normal blood levels
Male 40 - 54
Female 38 - 47
Chronic infections
High monocytes and basophils
Antibody reactions
High lymphocytes
Acute infections
High neutrophils
Allergic reactions
High eosinophils
Tube that conducts tears
Nasolacrimal duct
Pharynx
throat
Nasopharynx
upper of the three regions of the pharynx, has uvula and soft palate.
Oropharynx
Middle portion. Has palantine and linqual tonsils
Laryngopharynx
most inferior portion of the pharynx
Larynx
voicebox. laryngeal cartilages, thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis, cunneiforms, corniculates and arytenoids. vestibular and vocal folds
trachea
windpipe. divides into primary bronchi
Fluid covering each lung
plueral fluid
Serous membrane covering each lung
pleura
Division of bronchial tree
Terminal bronchioles > respiratory bronchioles > alveolar ducts > alveoli
Lining of trachea is composed of
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Alveolus
an air sac that communicates with respiratory bronchioles
Pulmonary capillaries
surround alveoli
mitral valve aka
bicuspid valve
right AV valve aka
tricuspid valve
Fibrous structures that prevent cuspid valves from prolapsing
chordae tendineae
Mitral valve prolapse
allows blood to enter the left atrium
muscular wall between left and right ventricles
interventricular septum
The aorta is ____ than superior vena cava
thicker
P Wave
contraction of atrium. no peaking
QRS complex
contraction of ventricles
T wave
ventricular repolarization. round, asymmetrical
first sound of heart
closing of AV valves, lub sound
second sound of heart
closing of semilunar valves, dub sound
roof of nose is made of
ethmoid
floor of nose is made of
hard palate
Internal nares aka
choanae
Openings to pharynx are called ____
internal nares
nasal septum composed of
bone and cartilage
What is the bony swelling on the lateral walls of the nose
Conchae
Three regions of the pharynx
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Pitch depends on
folds, phonation, articulartion, resonation, swallowing
what forms the adam's apple
thyroid
cricoid cartilage
ring of cartilage attached to top of trachea
What cartilage is on top of cricoid
Arytenoid (buried in vocal cords)
What part contains c-shaped cartilage
Trachea
purpose of terminal bronchioles
deliver air into pulmonary lobule
purpose of respiratory bronchioles
thinnest, delivers air to surface area of lungs
What is the importance of the alveolus
actual site of gas exchange and made of simple squamous epithelial