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15 Cards in this Set

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natural selection
a population can change over generations if individuals that possess certain heritable traits leave more offspring than other individuals
"evolutionary" adaptation
an accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms' ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments
scala naturae
Aristotle recognized certain "affinities" among things, concludes that life-forms can be arranged on ladder. Each form of life, parfect and permanent, had alotted ring
taxonomy
founded by Linnaeus, branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying organisms; nested, not linear like scala naturae
catastrophism
each boundry layer between strata represents a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that destroyed many species living at the same time, proposed by Cuvier
gradualism
contrast catastrophism, profound change can take place through the cumulative effect of slow but continuous process, gradual mechanisms currently working in world; Hutton
uniformitarianism
Lyell incorporated Huttons thinking, same geological processes operating today as in past, at the same rate
acquired characteristics
pass modifications on; giraffe had get long neck by stretching, then pass the longer neck on
descent with modification
Darwin's initial phrase for the process of evolution
artificial selection
human modifiying other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that posess desired traits
homology
similarity resulting from common ancestry
homologous structures
arms, forelegs, flippers and wings of different mammals that represent variations on a structural theme that was present in their common ancestor
biogeography
geographic distribution of species
endemism
islands showcases of the influence of geography on evolution; have many species not found anywhere else in the world
analogous structure
all the differnt types of wings; similar function