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65 Cards in this Set

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What evolutionary trait gave plants complete freedom from hydro-dependency?
The advent of pollen
what reproductive changes separate the none seed plants from the seed?
the reduction of the gametophyte
What is synapomorphy?
derived character state shared by two or more terminal groups of a particular phylogeny
green modified leafs used to protect the flower
Sepals
colorful portions used to attract insects
Flowers
male reproductive organ
sporophylls produce microspores
Stamen
Carpel
female gametophyte
sporophylls produce megaspores
seeds are made of what?
Three generations of plants
Integument
seed coat for protection
sporaphyte parent
2n diploid
nutrient
feeds the new plant
gametophyte parent
n haploid
embryo
New plant
developing sporophyte
2n diploid
four gymnosperms
seedless/cone bearers
cycadophyta(palm like)
pinophyta/coniferophyta(evergreen
gingkophyta(fan leaf)
gnetophyta(desert strap leaf)
fruit types develope from
single carpel
separate carpels same plant
clusters of flowers
other flower parts and carpel
fruit types
simple
aggregate
multiple
accessory
Double fertilisation
two sperm per pollen
one fertilizes egg
other fuses with 2 haploid nucleus forming a 3n nucleus in megasporangium used to nourish embtyo
What id the difference between monoecious and dioecious
the former contains both the mega and microsporangiate flower on the same plant while the latter has each flower on separate ones
What is the difference between the monocots and eudicots?
The former contains only one cotyledon during development and the later has two
Most basal of existing angiosperms
Tracheids
Amborella
vessel elements originated here
second of the basal groups
Water lilies
third basal group
Star anise
Basal group
a phylogenetic group that breaks off prior then the rest of the clade
3rd largest angiosperm group
carpels and stamen in a spiral
magnoliids
1 cotyledons(seed leafs)
flower parts in 3
single grove pollen
scattered vascular bundles
parallel leaf veins
Monocots
2 cotyledons
flower parts in 4's or 5's
triple grove pollen
ring vascular bundles
branched leaf veins taproot
eudicots
How do mycelium grow and why?
by length not gerth
cell division and differentiation
all to increase surface area
types of Asexual fungal reproducion
Budding
spores
conidia(naked spores hyphae end)
Fission
difference of fission and budding
The later is an uneven split the former is an even split
difference of septate and coenocytic hyphae
the former has the nucleus seperated by cross walls the later has continuous multinucleic cytoplasmic mass
how are mycorrhizae mutualistic with tree roots
fungi hyphae infect plant either ecto or endo giving plant more SA for absorption and they take sugar
fungus and photosynthetic alga or bacteria
Lichen
single celled or colonial
saparobes or parasites
Asex and Sex
zoospores(single flagella)
only single flagelated fungi
Chytridiomycota
mutualist(mycorrhizan)or saparob
coenocytic(no pores)absorbative hyphae
Septate(found where repo cells are)
Zygomycetes
Ascomycetes(sac fungus)
decomposers mutualits
lichens mycrrhi or pathogenic
septate hyphae(pores)
Basidiomycetes(club fungus)
rust and smut
septate hyphae(pores)
Sex only
Deuteromycetes
NO sexual stages
little known, can be place in other groups by molecular data
opisthokonts are?
plants animals and fungal
Parthenogenesis
A sexual reproduction via unfertilized egg
a false live birth in which the egg remains within the mother but is nourished via egg yoke
Ovoviviparity
life birth
egg retained
nourished via mom
viviparity
egg develops outside the mom
Oviparity
types of animal skeletons
hydrostatic
endo
exo
what are the stages of cleavage
zygote
eight cell cleavage
Blastual(hallo ball)
gasturlation(enfolding)
gastrula(layers)
Acoelomate
area between the gut and body filled with mass of mesenchyme cells
Psudocoelmate
only muscle on one side of the digestive/body seperation
coelmates
muscles on both sides
hydrostatic skeleton
fluid filled stretchy tissue able to morph
Blastopore=mouth
spiral cleavage
schizocoelous
Protostome
Blastopore=anus
indeterminate
enterocoelous
Deuterstome
Sponges
asymmetrical
np true tissue(parazoa)
Proifera
Pinacocytes
Cells that for the epidermis
Porpcytes
cells that form the pores/ostia
amoebocytes
cells that form mesohyl
phagocytocis
transport of nutrients via psudeopoda
how do sponges create current
choanocytes
Hydras/Jellies/coral/anemones
radial symmetry
blind gut
true tissue
simple nerves
Cnidaria
Nematocysts
stinging cells of cnidaria
ctenophora
comb jellies(eight rows of plate
true gut
true tissue
biradial
nerve net
Lophotrochozoans
triploblastic
ventral nerve cord
bilateral
anterior brain
platyhekminthes
Evolutionary reversal
flat worms
acoelomate
simple organs
blind gut
spiralians
nemertea
annelida
mollusca
annelida
spiral cleavage
coelmate
segmented
closed circulatory
Polycgaeta VS oligocgaeta
many VS few Bristles
Mollusca
ceolomate
spiral cleavage
foot mantle viscus mass
polyplacophora
chiton
eight plates
internal fert
Bivalvia
clams and filter feeders
2 shells
eye spots
external fert
scrap algea
gastropoda
snails
slugs
prey on bivalve or scrap algae
cephalopoda
octopus
squid
natiluses
preditors
ink