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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the study of how organisms interact with their environment?
What are the levels of the heirarchy of the biota?
species, populations, communities, ecosystems, biomes
What are nonliving components that include air, water, and soil called?
What are living components that consist of other members of the organism's own species as well as individuals of other species
What are organisms that are introduced into a region where they do not naturally live
What is organismal ecology
how individuals interact with each other and their physical environment
what is population ecology
how and why the population size change over time
what is community ecology
how species interact and the consequences
what is ecosystem ecology
how energy and nutrients cycle through the environment
what is the effort to study, preserve, and restore threatened populations, communities and ecosystems
conservation biology
what is the climate?
long term weather conditions
what is the weather?
short term atmospheric conditions
What is the major cycle in global air circulation that is responsible for making the amazon river basin wet and the sahara dry?
Hadley cell
what are regular, annual fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, or both
what is specific heat
the capasity for storing heat energy
what is a rain shadow
the dry region on the side of a mountain range away from the prevailing wind
what is a biome
a type of terrestrial ecosystem that is unique to a given region and is characterized by a distinct type of vegetation
what are the terrestrial biomes?
artic tundra
boreal forest
temperate forest
temperate grassland
subtropical desert
tropical wet forest
characteristics of a tropical wet forest
rain forests that are found in equatorial regions where rain fall is high adn variation in temperature is low
what is the total amount of carbon fixed by photosynthesis per unit per year?
what is the total mass of living plants, excluding the roots
aboveground biomass
what is the total amount of carbon that is fixed per year minus the amount of fixed carbon oxidized during cellular respiration
net primary productivity
what is the uppermost layers of branches that is intermingled with vines
what are plants that grouw entirely on other plants
what are prairie/steppe/pampas?
an extensive grassland. typically found in dry interiors of continents in the temperate latitudes
what are most tundra soils that are in the perennially frozen state called
what are bodies of standing freshwater classified as:
lakes, ponds, or wetlands
what are the plants that grow above the surface of the water called
emergent vegetation
what consists of the shallow waters along the shore, where flowering plants are rooted
littoral zone
what is the open water that recieves enough light to support photosynthesis called
limnetic zone
what is the substrate that provides habitat for burrowing animals and bacteria called
benthic zone
what are regions of the littoral, limnetic and benthic zones that recieve sunlight a part of
photic zone
what are regions that do not recieve light a part of
aphotic zone
what lack trees and typically exhibit a slow but steady rate of water flow and are typically connected to lake or stream systems
what are similar to marshes but are dominated by trees and shrubs
what develop in depressions where water flow is low or nonexistant and the water is largely stagnant so oxygen is used up during decomposition of dead organic matter faster than it enters via diffusion from the atmosphere
what is the complete mixing of upper and lower layers of water that occurs each spring and fall in temperate-zone lakes
what is the gradient in environmental temperature across a large geographic area
what are bodies of water tha move constantly in one direction
creeks < STREAMS < rivers
what is the environment that forms where rivers meet the ocean
what consists of a rocky, sandy, or muddy beach that is exposed to the air at low tide but submerged at high tide
intertidal zone
what extends from teh intertidal zone out toward the open ocean to depths of about 200m
neritic zone
what is the gently sloping, submerged portion of a continental plate that is at the edge of the neritic zone
continental shelf
what is the open ocean which ranks as the most unproductive environment on Earth
oceanic zone