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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the three phyla that are recognized as deuterostomes
Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata
What are the five major lineages of Echinoderms
1-feather stars and sea lilies
2-brittle stars and basket stars
3-sea cucumbers
4-sea stars
5-sea urchins and sand dollars
Name four characteristics of Echinodermata
*are named for the spines/spikes in many species
*are bilaterally symmetric as larvae but are radially symmetric as adults
*have a water vascular system
*produce calcium carbonate plates under skin to form an endoskeleton
What is a water vascular system?
a series of fluid-filled tubes and chambers that form a hydrostatic skeleton
*can consist of tube feet- enlongated fluid-filled structures and podia- sections of tube feet that are involved in motion along a substrate
Name characteristics/examples of phylum Hemichordata
(acorn worms)
*has one of the four characteristics of Chordata- pharyngeal gill slits that function in feeding and gas exchange
What are the four morphological features of phylum Chordata
1-pharyngeal gill slit
3-dorsal hollow nerve cord
4-muscular tail that extends past the anus
Name and descibe the three subphyla of Chordata
1-urochodates-(tunicates) are suspension feeders living attached to hard substrates in the ocean
2-cephalochordates-also known as lancelets, which look like fish
3-vertebrates-have a vertebral column
In aquatic vertebrates, ____ develop from the pharyngeal pouches and function in gas exchange
What are somites?
segmented blocks of tissue that help to organize the vertebrate body plan
When were the first vertebrate fossils to contain bone in the form of an exoskeleton found?
480 million years ago
When did the first vertebrates with jaws appear?
430 million years ago
When did tetrapods(animals w/ 4 limbs) make the transition to land?
357 million years ago
When were vertebrates with cartilage endoskeletons first found in the ocean?
530 million years ago
What is a stiff tissue that consists of scattered celles in a gel-like matrix of polysaccharides and protein fibers
What is the lineage of vertebrates that include all tetrapods except amphibians and are named for their adaptation of the amniotic egg as a reproductive structure?
What has a watertight shell or case enclosing a membrane-bound food supply, water supply, and waste repository
amniotic egg
The _____ protects the embryo
The _____ is a membranous pouch that contains nutrients for the growing embryo
yolk sace
The _____ is a membranous pouch that holds waste materials
The _____ seperates that amnion, yolk sace, and allantois from the albumen and provides a surface were gas exchange between embryo and the surrounding air can take place
What were the first vertebrates that could breed in terrestrial environments
Amniotic eggs have _____ that minimize water loss as the embryo, bathed in liquid, develops inside
An amniotic egg also contains a membrane-bound supply of water in a protein-rich solution called _____
the embryo is enveloped in a protective inner membrane called ______
What are the three sections of a vertebrate brain?
Forebrain- smell
Midbrain- vision
Hindbrain- balance/hearing
Give characteristics/examples of the Chordata groups Myxinoidea and Petromyzontoidea
*only vertebrates that lack jaws
*lack paired fins
*hagfish lack a vertebral column but lampreys have small pieces of cartilage
Give characteristics/examples of the Chordata group Actinopterygii
(Ray-Finned Fishes)
*gills covered by operculum
*most ancient living vertebrates to have skeleton made of bone
*have a gas-filled swim bladder
*most diverse group of all vertebrates
Give characteristics/examples of the Chordata group Chondrichthyes
(Sharks, Rays, Skates)
*have cartilaginous skeleton, external gill slits, jaws, paired fins, teeth are modified scales
Give characteristics/examples of the Chordata groups Actinistia and Dipnoi
(Coelacanths and Lungfish)
*lobed-finned fishes- fins that are supported by an array of bones and muscle
*amphibians arose from these fish
What are the four lineages of the Chordata group Reptilia
Turtles, Snakes/Lizards, Crocodiles/Alligators, Birds
Give characteristics/examples of the Chordata group Amphibia
(Frogs, Salamanders, Caecilians)
*lay eggs in water and adults live on land
*most ancient tetrapods
*external fertilization with aquatic larval stage
Name some major characteristics of the Chordata group Reptilia
*produce a shelled egg
*have keratinized epithelium- protects skin from water loss
*have modified scales, claws, feathers, beaks
*internal fertilization
A shell composed of bony plates that fuse to vertebrae and ribs, and a bony beak are characteristics of what Reptilia group
Testudinia (Turtles,Tortoises)
Differently placed eyes/nostrils that allow them to sit underwater for extended periods with 21 known species are characteristics of what Reptilia group
Crocodilia (Crocodiles,Alligators)
Name characteristics/examples of the Reptilia group Lepidosauria
(Lizards, Snakes)
*lizards have developed jointed legs
*snakes lack external ear holes
*snakes can dislocated their jaw/ can have some remnants of limbs
What Reptilia group is the only group that are endotherms (animals that regulate their body temperature internally) which is aided by special lungs and a four chambered heart?
Aves (Birds)
____ are modified scales that allow flight
Give characteristics/examples of Mammalia group Monotremata
(Platypuses, Echidnas)
*most ancient group of mammals
*lay eggs, no placenta
*produce milk; have lower metabolic rates than other mammals
Give three basic characteristics of Chordata group Mammalia
*hair or fur
*mammary glands that produce milk
What are the two main groups of primates?
Prosimians- before monkeys
Anthropoids- human like
How are anthropoids distinguished from prosimians?
anthropoids have fully opposable thumbs
Name four characteristics of primates
*have eyes infront of their face
*nails are flattened and are efficient at grasping
*large brains
*complex social behavior, and extensive parental care of offspring
Rodents, bats, hooved mammals, whales, seals, elephants, primates, and all other mammals that are placental mammals are in which Mammalia group