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17 Cards in this Set

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Species
an evolutionary independent population or group of populations
biological species concept
the critical criterion for identifying species is reproductive isolation
prezygotic isolation
prevents individuals of different species from mating
postzygotic isolation
the offspring of matings between members of different species do not surviveor reproduce
morphospecies concept
populations are morphologically distinct
phylogenetic species concept
is based upon reconstructing the evolutionary history of populations and basing on the smallest monophyletic group on phylogenetic tree
allopatric speciation
occurs as a result of physical isolation via dispersal/colonization or vicariance
dispersal / colonization
split off from main population
vicariance
physical splitting of habitat by physical barrier
sympatric speciation
occurs as a result of reproductive isolation (populations are not physically seperated)
biogeography
the study of how species and populations are distributed geographically
polyploidy
mutant individuals that have more than two sets of chromosomes
autopolyploidy
doubling of chromosomes in same species due to error in meiosis
allopolyploidy
when different species mate and produce a polyploid offspring
reinforcement
hybrids are less fit, strong natural selection against inbreeding
hybridization
hybrids as fit, result in intermediate characteristics
hybrid zone
geographic area where interbreeding occurs and hybrid offspring are common