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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pliny
1st century C.E.
Rome
Naturilis Historia
Herodtus
5th cent B.C.E
Greek
national identity, us-them
"father of history"
Histories
Stores, travel
France 1700s
Human variation invetigated
culutral/biological
start of race concept
3 Reasons Race Important to pre1900 USA
Immigration
Slaves
Landowner ship/claim over natives
Naturalization Acts
1790,95,98
1st: citizenship for whites
who is white? eg, Italians
Armchair/Speculative Period
1492-1840
Non-scientific, hypotheical
Moundbuilders possibilies
Lost Israel tribe
Atlantians
Asians
Hindoos
Humans?
Thomas Gage
1648
scientific
N.Americans look like Asians
Possibilites for why Natives can't make mounds
Metals
Too primative for sophiscated building on this scale
Mounds dated too old
Natives forget who made
Tablets w/writing
Caleb Atwater
1820
Hindoos for Moundbuilders
Thomas Jefferson
1820's (?)
scientific excavations
Strata
not just treasure hunting
James Smithson
.5Million $ for smithosonian
- diffusion of knowledge
British
1826 donated
Epraim Squire/Edward Davis
1848 Publication, first for Smithsonian
Detailed systematic study
Moundbuilders
slightly speclative
Cyrus Thomas
1882-1894
Beureau of Ethonlogy
Native Amer.
2000 sites studied
Indians could build
Mounds young enough
Smallpox kill~75% ppl forget about culural heriatage
Monogenism
single source/Adam/Eve
variation form climtate, and degenratism
Polygenism
multiple starting points
many adam.eve
unequal and distnict races
Hybirds=bad
American School
Degneratism
Like Monogeism
Bibical
Falling of man
Samuel Morton
1839
Carnia Americana
empiricst, much data published
1000s of skulls
brain size=intelligence
Cacausisan-Mongol-American-Ethopian
Inconsitant caution
inconsistant sex distrution
used Peruvians(small) for N.Americans
Excluded small Hindoos, for Cacusain
~75% of Ethopians=women
After adustments for fairness, little difference
Monographs
Skewed picres, F.Horizontal
Louis Agaissiz
Hardvard, Comparitive Zoology, Fish
any variation=sepreate sp.
-polygeny
creationist
charasimatic, $
geographic correltion to race
no data, studied fish
Phrenology
Franz Gall(1758-1878)
Phrenos=mind, Greek
roots of craniomety, anthroptometry
19th, popular
Paul Broca
Broca's area for langauage
Broca' Aphaisa, trouble w/syntax
Ranking
-Cranial Index
-Women
Cranial Index
Broca
Doliocephalc, ratio <.75
Brochephilic ratio >.8
Dolio-elongated, Euro large frontal lobe=smarts
-African, elongated back, animalsistic
Broca's female Brain
Women=less intelligent
proxy for inferirs
easy to study, at home
Franz Boas
Hevy sampling
CI varies within population, ontogeny
Immigrant with CI diff from kids
-enviro
AMerican arhopology
Ceaser Lombroso
Criminality
Facial features
Gemmules
Darwins's theory fo inheritence
Galton (cousin) disproves- rabbits
Darwing protests, maybe not in blood
1800s
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
Aquried Chararestics
ontongeny recapilutes phylongeny
philosphical
eg, giraffes
late1700s-early 1800s
August Weisman
Test aquaried characteristics
mice tails
somatic vs. gamete
gamete for inheriitence, changes in somatic=nothing
Gregor Mendel
Pea plants
Principle of Segergation
-genes in pairs, get one from each parent
Principle of Independant Assortment
-independant traits
Eugenics
Galton
Positive-Breed up the good
Negative-Keep bad from breeding
Historametry
-Promeninant ppl. grouped in family
Twin studies, genes importnant
Galton's tatisitics, fingerprints
Heritability
Variation of pop. ttributable to genes
h^2= G^2/P^2, P^2=G^2 + E^2
Social Darwinism
Herbert Spencer
Survival of the fittest
Thomas Malthus
1800s
Economic, food linear,pop exponetial
social dawinism roots
American Eugeneics
Negative
1710, unfitdefined by genes
1927, Buck vs. Bell
Buck v. Bell
1927
Sterlized "retarded" woman, and sis
Vesetcomy, Tubual Ligation
Cut gemete tubes to sterlize
David Starr Jordan
1800s
dysgeneics- negative eugenics
American Breeder Assoc.-- A.Genetics.A
Comitte on Eugenics
ERO- Euge Record Office
Height of American eugencis
1910-1940
Harry Laughlin
1900s
Immigation Act
Superintendent of ERO
Admit slaves disadvantaged due to conditions not genes
Pioneer Fund
Immigration Acts
1921
1924
H. Laughlin
Limit Poland, Italy, Russia immigrants
End of US Eugenics
WWII- unpopular- racist,Nazi
Herman Muller-fruitfly 1900s
Mutations
behavior as complex trait
recessive alleles persistance
J. Rushton, Arthur Jensen
Rushton, pres of Pinoeer fund
modern
IQ by race
-persistant, 80% heritable
-misuse of terms
Pioneer fund
study racial diff
eugenucs
dontaes $
William Dickens, James Flynn
can't trace IQ gap between whies/blacks to origin
blacks are getting smarter faster
214 Genes influencing nervous sys
evolve in primates ~30% faster than other mammmals
50% for devoplement of nervesys (polygenic)
matience/physiology, same rate
microcephaly
nervous genes mutate
small head, -2stddev at birth
~2% newborns
High functioning- walk in 2yrs, some speech
Low fucntiong- die early
severity of effect, clues to elutionary plasticity of gene
Walker's Races
Negroid
Cacusoid
Mongoloid
Australoid
...Khoisonic
Systema Naturia Races
1758
Linneus
Americanus
Europus
Asiaticus
Afer
Monstrous
Ferus
Johann Blumbach
coined "cacusiod"
whites as ancesteral condition
orginate/purest, Gerogia (Balkans, Caucuses)
Carleton Coon
Racail Adaptations 1982
races w/georaphic regions
pure center, mixed edges
Sub species, Race
geographically,ecologically, morphologically defined arbitra divison of sp.
Bioogical Sp. Concept
Ernst Mayer
Reproductive isolation
Allopatric speciation
vicarance event
geogrpahic seperation of pop
Polytypic
has subsp.eg chimps
Ethncitiy
culture, customs, language, regional affiliation
Three Brothers
3 children defined as different races from same parents
One Drop
any minority heritage, you are the minotrity
Hetero/Homogametic
XX-fem(homo)
XY-male(hetero)
Animals can be other way around
X inactivation
inactivated X-barr body
only one X can be expressed
diff cell line can express diff X (fem have twoX)
eg, CC the clonecat- genotypical identical, phenotypical diff
X chrosoome
1098 genes
4% all human genes
10% genetic disorders
-male always gets disorder (oneX)
Psudoautosomal region, recombine on X, Y at tips
Evolionary history of XY
300mya from autosomal to sex
major characters evolve beofre primate radiation-150mya
Y Chromosome
54 genes homolagous w/Y
6 times smaller than X
15 unique genes
-male specific
decay in nonrecombing parts- lose genes- small
XY Recombination
competition
sex specific
Y shrinks, become male specific
Y fully male
X 2/3 female
Chimps w/fewer Y genes
sperm competiton
Polyandry-selective enviro
losses outwieghed by sperm gains
Humans have pair boding, harems
SRY Gene
determines maleness
Y chrom
triggers male in female embryos
little sex recombination to protect vital SRY
DAX- female, SRY overirdes
-can only override one, mutationw/ 2 DAX=XY female
MAternal Fetl conflict
Ychromsome-parasite
father wants max invest, mother min
Homosexulaity
gay bro, 4x likely for sibling also
monogenetic(ID) tiwns 50% cocordant for orientation, 20% faternal(dizygotic)
Dean Hamer
-1993, linkage at top of X(75%) gay men
H-Y, multi mothers accumalte antigens that inhibit, HY helps devopl male brain, later child=more likely for homo
2005 Mustanski, chrom7 linkage
mtDNA, ~female specific, lower mitochondir count, lower sperm, less fetile, gay?
Animals exhibit homo behavior
Pheremones
Savic 2005
Vomernasal organ (jacobson)
-not rigged up in humans
AND(male sweat, testosternoe)
-trigger reaction in fem, gay
EST(fem urine, estrogen)
-trigger reaction in male,gay
singals in hypthanlus/olfactory
Hypothalamus
visceral
automatic
emotion
unger, thirst
temp
sleep, wake
hormones
Why homosexuals around?
2-6% homosexaul men
reproductive adv of heterozygote
-fem like sensitive
altrism, kin's offrspring get resources
X might have some fem help, male bad genes
Edward Wilson
Sociobiology
1975
unity of fields
genetic predispostions
Standard Social Sci Model
no genetic influence
tabua rosa
David Reimer
Mutalites penis
try to grow up as girl
fails, discontent
gentic influence
Genetic imprinting
genes "know" from dad/mom
Angelman/Prader-Willi
Turner's
Angelman/Prader-Willi
Chrom15 deletion/absence
if have dad's angel
-language, puppet, laughter, retardation
if have mom's prader
-obsity, eating, weak, retard
Turner's
monosomy, single X
pheno female, short, not sexually mature
genetic imprint
14%-dad
40%-mom
social inept, retardation
XX only 2%
Genes able to inlfuence specific behaviors
flies-fem +1 male gene--lesbian
mice, stathim control fear
-shock palte,open box
-in imigulda
Sexaul orientation, langge, visual spaial skill, politcs?
Evolutionary psych
EEA: enviro evo adaptdeness
the adapted mind
John tooky, Leada Cosmides
God gene
controversial, not peer reviewd
VMAT2