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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
human chromosomes
46 total, 44 autosomes, 2 sec chromosomes
chromosomes that don't determine sex
sex chromosomes
chromosomes that do determine sex
chart that shows the relationships within a fmaily
polygenic traits
trait that is controlled by more than one gene (height,skin color)
blood group genes
multiple alleles (a, b, ab, o)
phwnylketonuria (pku) [autosomal recessive]
an inherited, metabolic disorder that can result in mental retardation and other neurological problems. people with theis disease have difficulty breaking down and using the amino acid phenylalanine. pku can be managed by a diet restricted in foods that contain this amino acid.
tay sach [autosomal recessive]
tay-sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal genetic disorder, inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance call anglioside gm2 accumulate in the nerve cells in the brain.
cystic fibrosis [autosomal recessive]
an inherited disease of exocrine glands, affecting most characteristically the pancreas, respiratory system, and sweat glands, usually beginning in the infancy and typified by chronic respiratory infections, pancreatic insfficiency, and susceptibility to heat prostration. cirrhoris of liver occuring in childhood is common and may produce portal hypertension, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism.
achondroplasia [autosomal dominant]
a genetic disorder, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, that results in a form of dwarfism characterized by short limbs, a normal sized heard and body and normal intelligence. the bones of the arms and legs are smaller than normal due to a defect in both bone and cartilage.
hunnington's disease [autosomal dominant]
genetic disease that causes profound motor dysfunction and is ultimately fatal. oneset of symptons usually occurs later in life (about 50 years of age). the disease is associated with an inability to control movements and the death of population of nuerons in the basal ganglia of the brain.
sikle cell disease [autosomal dominant]
found in 1/500 african americans; red blood cells change shape to look like sickles; once sickle shaped, the red blood cells get stuck in the capillaries, damage cells and tissue beyond blockage; just one DNA base is changed, which ends up translating into a valine amino acid instead of glutamic acid
protein that carries oxygen to the blood
sex-linked genes
genes located on sex-chromosomes
color blindness (x-linked recessive)
most common type is red-green; males cannot be carriers, 1/10 males and 1/100 females
hemophilia (x-linked recessive)
1/10,00 males born with hemophilia; bleeders' disease-protein necessary for clotting is missing; injections for normal clotting proteins
duchenne muscular dystrophy (x-linked recessive)
results in prigressive weakening and loss of skeletal muscle; rarely live past early adulthood; 1/3,00 males born with it in the U.S., defective gene codes for muscle protein
x-cromosome inactivation
females have 2 c chromosomes, whereas males only have 1 c chromosome; in females one can be turned on while the other x chromosome is inactivated
barr body
inactivated x-chromosome; it is so tightly wound and condensed that it can not be transcribed
the way an organism reacts to change in it internal condition or external enviroment
any kind of signal that carries info and can be detected
a single, specific reaction to a stimulus
innate behavior
inborn behavior; it appears in fully fnctional form the first time it is performed
alteration in behavior as a result of experience
a process by which an animmal decreases or stops its response to a repetitive stimulus that neither rewards nor harms
classical conditioning
when an animal makes a mental connection between a stimulus and some kind of reward or punishmen
opertant conditioning
occurs when an animal learns to behave in a certain way through repeated practice, in order to receive a reward or avoid punishment
insight learning
reasoning; occurs when an animal applies something it has already learened to a new situation without a period of trial and error
learning based on early experience; once imprinting has occured the behavior cannot be changed
the periodic movement from one place to another and then back again
circadian rhythms
behavorial cycles that occur in daily patterns
an individual sends out stimuli (such as sounds, visual displays, or chemicals) in order to attract a member of the opposite sex
elaborate series of behaviors performed the same way by all members of a population for the purpose of communicating
a group of closely related animals of the same species that work together for the benefit of the group
a specific area that contains limited resorces, such as food, water, resting sites, shelter, and potential mates
a threattening behavior that one animal uses to gain control over another
the passing of information from one organism to another through sound, visual, touch, or chemical signals
chemical messengers that affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, to mark territory or to signal readiness to mate
a system of communication that combines sound, or gestures according to sets of rules about word order and meaning, such as grammer and sytax (only used by humas)