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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the basic function of the respiratory system?
get O2 in and CO2 out
What gas is taken in by the lungs?
What gas is expelled by the lungs
Carbon Dioxide
When, how, where was this gas created in the body?
Cellular Respiration--mitochondria
Where, how, why is this gas used in the body?
Ventilation--air gets in and out of lungs through the nose and mouth.
Inhaled air undergoes what three changes or modifications as it moves inward towards the lungs?
Cleansed, Warmed, and Moistened
Why does crying sometimes produce a runny nose?
The duct leads tto the nasal passages--crying makes too much of it.
How and where are the cranial sinuses connected to the air passage?
nasal cavity
What causes a sinus headache?
Ducts leading from the sinuses are blocked and fluid accumulates.
Tonsial are part of the ______ system
What kinds of clls are in the tonsils?
B-cells and T-cells
What do these cells do?
They fight infections (germs). They are part of the immune system. In lymphnodes they clean up tonsil fluid that is returning to the circulatory system.
Where is the larynx?
ventral to the esophagus, at the tope of the trachea
What is an alternate name for the larynx?
Voice box
How is food kept out of the larynx?
By the epiglottis
What is the Adam's Apple?
It's the apex of the larynx.
Name four of the tracheal structures:
C-shaped cartilages, goblet cells, ciliated epithelium, and mucus
What is the function of c-shaped cartilages?
they hold the trachea open and allow esophagus to expand when swallowing.
What is the function of goblem cells?
they produce mucus in the lungs
What is the purpose of ciliated epithelium
it keeps lungs clean by 'sweeping' mucus and debris towar the pharynx
lines the trachea
What is the bronchial tree?
the traches divides into right and left bronchi, which lead to the right and left lungs and the bronchi branch into bronchioles
What is the difference between a bonchus and a bronchiole
th bronchus connects the trachea to bronchioles, while broncioles connect to alveoli
The actual chambers where gas exchange takes place
About how many alveoli are present in healthy adult lungs?
300 million
About how much surface area is present in adult lungs?
500 square ft.
How thick is the wall of one alveolus?
~1.5 micrometers
What separates blood from air in the lungs?
Flat endothelium cell of capillaries and flat respiratory epithelia cell of lung.
About how thick is the separation?
Extremely thing, ~ 1.5 micrometers
What is meant by breathing?
Air goes in and out through the nose and mouth
What is meant by external respiration?
Oxygen leaves air in lungs, bond to hemoglobing of erythrocytes, and carbon dioxied leaves plasma and goes into air in lungs.
What is meant by internal respiration?
Oxygen leaves air in lungs, goes to body cell with tissue fluid. Carbon dioxide leaves body cells and enters plasma with returning tissue fluid.
What is meant by cellular respiration?
Oxidation of glucose to make ATP~ primarily takes place in mitochondria.
What is aire that enters and leaves the lungs during normal relaxed breathing called?
Tidal volume
What is extra air that can be forcefully expelled called?
Expiration reserve.
What is the amount of additional air that can be drawn into the lungs called?
Inspiration reserve
What is the volume of air that never leaves the lungs called?
Residual Volume
What is the maximum amount of air in-out lungs in one hard, forced breath called?
Vital Capacity
What inpact does vigorous aerobic exercise have on vital capacity?
What is a collapsed long? What might cause this? How can it be treated?
Can be caused by gun-shot wounds or stabbing. All our air including residual volume would be expelled so that ineer walls of the alveolie are pressed together. It can be treated by reinflation by forcing air in.
What two basic features of the lungs are critically important for maintaining lung function?
large surface area for gas exchange, and flexibility for getting air in and out.
The outer membanes of the lungs (facing the thoracic cavity) are called the_____
An infection of the outer membrans of the lungs is called_______
What muscles are involved in ventilating the lungs?
The diaphragm and intercostal muscle of ribs.
During inhalation, which muscles contract and which muscles relaxx?
The diaphragm contrcts

The intercostal mucles relax
During exhalation, which mucles contract and which relax?
The intercostal muscles contract.

The diaphragm relaxes.
Sinusitis-- what is it, and what % of upper respiratory infections is it accountable for?
Virus/Bacteria enter sinuses, increased mucus prodution--the duct to nasal passage may be blocked. Pressure may cause a "sinus headache". 1-3%
Otitis media
Gerim get into mid ear behind the eardru, They enter through the auditory canal. This is dangerous to the eardrum. If it is bacterial, then it can be treated with an antibiotic.
Tonsils become inflammed and enlarged. may make breathing difficult.
Which respiratory disease are or were occupational hazards?
emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis
Which respiratory disease are currently associated with smoking?
emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis
How are cancers rated for lethality?
Lethality= % still alive 5 years after being diagnosed.
What is the average survival rate for all cancers?
How is it different for different people?
Whites= 53%

African Americans= 38%
Which cancers have high survival rates?
Localized breast cancer and juvenile leukemia
Which cancers have low survival rates?
Lung and pancreatic cancers.
What is the survival rate for lung cancers?
What are some of the health risks for smoking?
5x greater for lung cancer, cancer of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and liver. Also greater chance of getting emphysema.
Which of the health risks for smoking is so high that the risk is almost exclusively associated with smoking?
About how much do pack-a-day smokers increase their risk of chance?
Slightly more than double.
What is the most likely cause of death for smokers?
various circulatory and heart problems, especially CHD.
About how many years do pack-a-day smokers advance their death date?
about 20 years.
What three smoking factors increase the risks of smoking?
How many cigarettes you smoke

How soon/how long you've been smoking

How deeply you inhale the smoke
How can you die sooner?
Start smoking at a young age, preferably before age 15

Smoke a lot of cigarettes, at least 1 1/2- 2 paces a day

Inhale deeply, like a MAN
What kind of tissue composes bone?
What are the three types of connective tissue that form the skeletal system?
bones, ligaments, and cartilage
What are two basic types of bone?
Compact bone and spongy bone
Dense, highly organized bone is called
compact bone
Unorganized bone with many unequal sized spaces is called
spongy bone
What kind of cartilage is found at the ends of long bones, in the nose and on the ends of ribs?
Hyaline cartilage
What kind of cartilage contains a lot of collagen and forms pads or disks (=intervertebral disks) between the vertebrae of the backbone?
Fibrous cartilage
What kind of cartilage forms tiny spaces in the ears and epiglottis?
Elastic Cartilage
Strands of fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another at a joint are called_______
Strands of fibrous connective tissue that connect muscles to bones are called________
The expanded end of a long bone (limb bone) is called
The elongate part of a long bone may be called the diaphysis or simply the _______
Many bones have both primary and secondary centers of ossification. Bands of cartilage that separate these centers are called
Cartilaginous growth plate
In adult bones, what happens to the bands that separate primary and secondary ossification centers?
They disappear
Joints between the bones of the skull are called ______ joints, and are also called ________

Connections between ribs and the sternum (=breat bone) are called____________
Cartilaginous Joints
Cartilaginous joints are commonly made of either ______ or ______
Hyaline or ?
The most moveable joints are called ________ joints.
Synovial joints are lined by a _____ membrane
Some joints, such as the knee, have a structure called a meniscus. What two structures form a meniscus?
the lateral and medial menisci
Describe the major treatments and therapies for artheritis?
1. Lose weight
2. Low impact exercise (bicycling, swimming, etc)
3. Pain control
4. Walking assistance (cane, crutches, walker)
5. Joint replacement
What are two basic ways that bones form during embryonic development?
Cartilage bones and Membrane bones
In adult bones, what happens to the bands that separate primary and secondary ossification centers?
The growth plate converts to bone
What is meant by remodeling of the bone?
In approppriate places spongy bone replaces fibrous cartilage
Why do adults need more calcium in their daily diet than children?
Adult bones are constantly being remodeled.
What are the four steps in repair of a broken bone?
Fibros Cartilage
Spongy Bone
What is a hematoma?
It is a mass of clotted blood at the break
What is the fibrous cartilage stage?
Cartilage rich in collagen replaces hematoma
What is the spongy bone (bony callus) stage?
Spongy bone replaces fibrous cartilage
What is the difference between a complete and an incomplete fracture?
Complete=two or more separate pieces

Incomplete= crackd, but not split
What is the difference between a simple and a compound fracture?
Simple=broken pieces inside skin

Compound=bone penetrates skin
Name three basic types of joints between bones
Fibrous joints
Cartilaginous joints
Synovial joints
Joints between the bones of the skull are called ______ joints, and are also called sutures.
What is the name and function of fluid produced by the synovial membrane?
Synovial fluid--it lubricates the joint
List three types of structures that help stabilize synovial joints
joint capsule (from connective tissue of bones)
muscles and tendons
What two structures form a meniscus?
extra cartilage that don't bear weight, and fluid-filled "bursa"
What is the cause of rheumatoid arthritis?
It's an auto-immune disease. The antibody attacks the synovial membrane, articular cartilages deteroriate, and bones may fuse together.
What is the cause of osteoarthritis?
Persisten impact damages articular cartilages; exposed bone grows into joint region
Of the three types of muscle, which one is under voluntary (conscious) control?
Skeletal muscle
A basic principle of muscles is that they can only_____ they cannot _____
Muscles work in groups. The major muscle causing motion is called the _______
Prime mover
Muscles that assist are called ______
Muscles that move the joint in the opposite direction are called ________
Antagonistic muscle
What are the three sources of ATP for muscle contraction?
Creatine Phosphate

Glycolysis (fermentation)

Cellular Respiration
How does creatine phosphate function in muscle contraction?
It is made from ATP before the muscles are working
What two things happen in order to "repay" an oxygen deficit (=oxygen debt)?
getting rid of lactic acid

getting more creatine phosphate
What has changed in a marathon runner to cause exhaustion at the end of race?
a marathon runner experiences exercise exhaustion because the runner now is using cellular respiration which causes all the available glycogen to be used up
How does exercise or lack of exercise influence the size of muscles? Give the technical terms for these changes.
Muscles get smaller with no exercise and increase with exercise. This is known as atrophy and hypertrophy, respectively.
Muscles fibers for sustained activity are called (distance running)
Slow twitch
Muscle fibers for quick power are called (weight lifting)
Fast twitch
Which type of fiber is predominantly aerobic?
Slow twitch
What type of fiber is predominantly anaerobic?
Fast twitch
Describe three important features of slow twitch muscle that are different from fast twitch muscle.
Slow twitch muscles are for prolonged, endurance activity while fast twitch is for short, intense activity. They are aerobic while fast twich is often anaerobic. Often more bright since myoglobin + blood = red color while fast twitch are often more pale.
Pneumonia: What germs cause this, who is especially at risk and why?
Viral or bacterial infection of lungs which bronchi and alveoli fill with fluid. Symptoms- high fever, chills, headache, chest pain. Especially prone is AIDS patients.
Tuberculosis: Cause? Why is this particularly difficult to treat? Special dangers?
Caused by tubercle bacillus, germ is very hard to kill with antibiotics, germ spreads easily from person to person
Pulmonary Fibrosis:
Cause: Inhaling particles such as sand, coal dust, asbestos, and fiberglass. The irritants cause the formation of alveolar cysts which reduce surface area and reduce alveolar elasticity. Now primarily a smoking hazard. Cannot be cured.
Chronic Bronchitis:
Airways are inflammed and filled with mucus. cough often brings up mucus. Bronchi have undergone degenerative cchanges including loss of ciliar and their normal cleansing action. Infection more likely to occur. Smoking cigarettes and cigars often cause or for some exposure to other pollutants
Alveoli are distended and their walls damaged so surface area available for gas exchange is reduced along with elasticity. Chronic severe coughing rips alveoli and alveolar walls destroyed, replaced by scare tissue. Exercise, drug therapy, supplemental oxygen along with quitting smoking may relieve symptoms and slow progress.
How are the tonsils positioned along the air passages?
they form a protective ring at the junction of the oral cavity and pharynx. they aid air passages by protecting against foreign antigens that get inhaled.
Why do men have a deep voice?
the growth of the vocal chords is more rapid and accentuated in males