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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nervous system made up of...
In a neuron, blank has all usual organelles like ribosomes
cell body (soma)
Blank and Blank are examples of processes (anything that sticks off of something else)
axons and dendrites
Blank carry impulses from one place to another
An impulse travels from blank to blank to blank
dendrites to cell body to axon
A neuron is blank when it's negatively charged when compared to the outside (70 mV more negative on inside..resting membrane potential)--> when a neuron is "resting"
How does the inside get more negative than the outside?
Protein channels in neuron membranes allow molecules across down the concentration gradients in facilitated diffusion. Active transport is also available for use.
The BLANK uses 1 ATP to move 3 sodium ions OUT and 2 potassium ions in.
sodium-potassium pump
Because of positive sodium ions being pumped out, and potassium ions leaking out, and because negative things get left behind (DNA/RNA/proteins), it's more BLANK on the outside
There are BLANK and BLANK voltage-gated channels that open up when the membrane reaches a particular voltage.
sodium and potassium
BLANK is when sodium and potassium go in and out of cell with different gates and channels when cell potential is at a certain level
action potential
BLANK is when the membrane potential moves in a positive direction
BLANK is whtn the membrane potential returns to its resting value
BLANK is when the membrane is at rest (- on inside, + on out)
BLANK are electrical signals run by traveling action potential--> the sodium from pening of voltage-gated channels travels down inside of mambrane--> brings up to threshold, and opening of voltage-gated channels happens (membrane has action potential)
In fast impulses, blank are wrapped around the axon, also known as blank.
schwann cells, myelin sheath
BLANKS are spaces between Schwann cells
nodes of Ranvier
In BLANK, the impulse jumps from node to node (faster)
saltatory conduction
A BLANK is the short period of time when the doium/ potassium channels reset to resting potenial (that portion of the membrane is not able to fire a second action potential during this time)
refractory period
The BLANK is the point where an impulse gets transferred either neuron-to-neuron or neuron-to-organ
BLANK is the chemical that most synapses use
BLANK is the most common neurotransmitter
BLANK are the organs that hold the neurotransmitters
BLANK bind to the neurotransmitters
BLANK is the space between the end of axon and the dendrites
synaptic cleft
The action potential reaches the terminal end of an axon, where the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and the neurotransmitter's released by exocytosis. It then diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the receptors on the dendrites.
Some neurotransmitters cause a cell to be BLANK, to move away from the threshold, or BLANK, depolarize towards the threshold
inhibited, stimulated
More stiumulatory than inhibitory; more inhibitory than stimulatory
action potential; summation (no action potential)
BLANK is made up of the brian and spinal chord (decision center)
central nervous sytem
BLANK is made up of the neurons outside of the brian and spinal chord (where decisions are sent)
peripheral nervous system
There are more neurons in the BLANK then the BLANK
central nervous system; peripheral nervous system
The BLANK and BLANK neurons are in the PNS
sensory and motor
The BLANK neurons send signals to sensory organs, the BLANK neurons send signals to organs like muscles, glands, etc., and the BLANK neurons connect sensory/ motor neurons
sensory, motor, interneurons
The BLANK neurons are in the CNS
The CNS is made up of 5 parts (name)
spinal chord, cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla, hypothalamus
This part of the CNS is involved in the primitive, reflex actions
spinal chord
This part of the CNS is our concious mind. This is where voluntary actions occur, such as movement, speech, and problem solving. This is where we have conscious awareness of sensations, such as smells, sights, hot, and cold.
This part of the CNS coordinates muscle movement and balance, so that movement is smooth and coordinated.
This part of the CNS is where involuntary acts originate, like breathing and blood pressure regulation. This is a relatively primitive region.
This part of the CNS maintains body homeostasis-- a constant internal environment regardless of changing external conditions. It monitors things like hormone levels, electrolyte balances, temperature, etc.
The 2 subdivisions of the PNS
the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
The BLANK is the voluntary system (concious control over the organs that it controls). THe skeletal mucles are the only organs controlled and monitored by this system. It uses acetycholine as a transmitter (releases ACh onto the muscle to stimulate and binds to receptors on the muscle to depolarize and contract).
somatic nervous system (ANS)
THis part of the PNS is involuntary (no concious control)...heart, digestive organs, blood vessels, pancreas, etc. It can be divided into 2 divisions: BLANK and BLANK.
Autonomic nervous system; sympathetic division, parasympathetic division
This division is the "fight or flight" division, and helps the autonomic nervous system prepare your body for stress situations by increasing the rate and force of your heartbeat, increasing blood pressure, increasing breath rate, and diverting blood flow away from your digestive organs and toward skelatal muslces. The primary neurotransmitter used by this division is BLANK.
sympathetic division; norepinephrine
THis division is the "resting and digesting" system, and is most active when you rest. It decreases the rate and force of your heartbeat, decreases blood pressure, decreases breath rate, and diverts blood flow to the digestive organs and away from skelatal muscles. IT also stiumlates activity in the digestive system, like movement of food through the stomach and intestines and secretion of digestive enzymes. The primary neurotransmitter used by this division is BLANK, just like in the BLANK division.
parasympathetic division, acetylcholine, somatic division.
Is the endocrine system closer or faster than the nervous system?
The endocrine system controls the body through the use of BLANK which are made of BLANK and secreted (released) into BLANK.
The organs that are affected by a particular hormone are referred to as that hormone's
target organs
Peptide hormones are made from BLANK and Sterid hormones are made from BLANK.
amino acids; cholesterol
Peptide hormones have receptors (indide or outside) the cell and steroids ahve receptors (inside or outside) the cell.
outside, inside
Peptide hormones cause their effects (more or less) rapidly than steroid hormones.
Insulin, prolactin, and glucagon are examples of BLANK hormones
Aldosterone, estrogen, and testoterone are examples of BLANK hormones
BLANK hormones cause their effects by turning existing enzymes in the cell on or off while BLANK hormones cause their effects by binding to DNA and changing which genes get transcribed.
aldosterone, estrogen, testosterone
The BLANK gland is the "master" endocrine organ.
What two lobes is the pituitary gland made of?
anterior and posterior
The hormones GH (Growth Hormone), TSH (Thyroid Stiumlating Hormone), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone), FSH (Follicle Stimulation Hormone), LH (Luteinizing Hormone), and prolactin are secreted by the BLANK gland
anterior pituitary gland
Oxytocin and ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) are secreted by the BLANK gland.
posterior pituitary gland
THis hormone targets all tissues and organs in the body and causes them to grow. It is especially important in childhood and adolescence, but in adults it can stimulate the rate at which older cells are replaced with newer cells (cell-turnover rate).
Growth Hormone (GH)
This hormone does exactly what its name implies. It stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
This hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland) to secrete its hormones.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
This hormone's target organs are the gonads (the male and female reproductive organs). In the female it stimulates the ovaries, causing development of a corpus luteum. In the male it stimulates the testes to make testosterone.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
This hormone is only released after childbirth. IT stimulates the mammary glands to make breast milk.
This hormone causes the uterus to contract during childbirth and also causes the mammary glands to release milk during breastfeeding.
This hormone causes the kidneys to retain water. It is also known as vasopressin.
Antidiuretic Hormone
Where and how are the hormones releasted/ stored in the posterior pituitary gland created?
In the hypothalamus by an action potential
The BLANK gland is found on the anterior part of the neck, and secretes the BLANK and BLANK hormones. It increases the rate of metabolism in most body's cells.
thyroid gland; thyroxine and calcitonin.
The BLANK hormone uses iodine. An overproduction of it is called BLANK and when it's below the normal level it's called BLANK.
thyroxine; hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism
The BLANK hormone activates bone cells to take calcium from blood and make new bone--> the overall effect of this hormone reduces blood calcium
The BLANK gland is found in the back of the thyroid gland. It secretes the BLANK, which has an overall effect of increasing the calcium in blood. Calcium needs to be constant because BLANK.
Parathyroid gland, parathyroid hormone, needs to be constant for nerve impulse conduction, heart contraction, blood clotting, etc.
The BLANK glands sit on top of the kidneys, and have two parts: BLANK and BLANK.
adrenal, adrenal medulla (inner part), adrenal cortex (outter part)
The adrenal medulla secrets BLANK and BLANK.
epinephrine; nonrepinephrine
The adrenal cortex secrets steroids from three different classes: BLANK, BLANK and BLANK.
glucocorticoids (liver as target), mineralocorticoids (kedyes as target), and sex steroids (gonads as target).
The BLANK secretes hormones and digestive enzymes.. specifically insulin and glucagon.
The Pancreas
BLANK AND BLANK are produced by special cells in the pancreas called Islets of Langerhans, or islet cells.
Insulin and glucagon
BLANK is secreted whenever blood glucose levels are high, like after a meal. It affects pretty much all the cells in the body; it allows them to take glucose out of the blood so they can use it in cellular respiration to produce energy. It also stiumlates the liver to store glucose as glycogen. Consequently, blood glucose levels go down.
BLANK is released whenever blood glucose is low, like in between meals after you haven't eaten in a while. THe target organ for glucagon is the liver; it causes the liver to break down glycogen and to release free glucose into the blood (glycogenolysis). The liver is the only organ that stores glycogen for this purpose. Consequently, blood glucose levels go up. Note that this is different than the effect that cortisol has on the liver. Both cortisol and glucagon cause the liver to relase glucose, but cortisol stimulates the production of "new" glucose from fats and proteins (gluconeogenesis) while BLANK stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into free glucose (glycogenesis).
The BLANK are the male (testis) and female primary sex organs (ovary).
The gonads produce sex steroids. The testes produce BLANK and BLANK, and the ovaries produce BLANK, BLANK and BLANK.
sperm and androgens (testosterone); ova, estrogens (estradiol) and progesterone).